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Applied Instrumentation

Table of Contents

Introduction..

Analysis of Present-Day Smart Campus Systems.

Design of a Smart Campus System..

ID card enable smart security system..

Smart Library Seating System..

Signal Conditioning Used in The Smart Campus System..

Proposal for Next Phase in Development.

Conclusion..

References.

Introduction to Smart Campus Systems Analysis

Smart Campus Systems or SCSs are used to describe intelligent systems on a campus. On any campus, there are many tasks which need to be carried out using human workforce. If these tasks can be performed and controlled by computers, it is known to be a part of an SCS. A campus system is said to be smart if can carry out various tasks such monitoring the gateways, security and other human dependent activities. One of the main components is the communication and interconnection of devices which help carry out these activities on a campus. One way to connect devices is using the IoT technology. As per Sari Ciptadi and Hardyanto (2017), IoT helps connect devices present on the campus and external entities. As per Muhamad, Kurniawan, Suhardi and Yazid (2017), campuses which make use of the cloud computing in their campus management system are able to access information in an effective manner and provide services accordingly. Some of the sub-systems of a smart campus system include smart learning facilities, waste management system, library management systems, teaching management system, smart parking systems, safety and security management systems.

Analysis of Present-Day Smart Campus Systems

As per Manning (2020), the innovation in the smart technologies sector has been advancing rapidly. These systems make use of different sensors and actuators to assist people in an effective way. These are connected to the main system or to each other through reliable wired and wireless networks. As per Muhamad, Kurniawan, Suhardi and Yazid (2017), the most commonly used technologies in smart campus systems is the RFID system. This helps users to enter crucial client related data such as usernames and passwords without having to use keyboards and other input devices. Another important task which has been simplified under the smart campus system is the parking system. The primitive way of a parking area was by using a help of a person to find a parking space or to oneself look around for one. Smart parking systems have simplified this by adding cameras and sensors in parking areas. They number of parking spots vacant and their individual locations are displayed on a screen or can even be sent to a phone through an app. In an approach to setup a smart parking system at the KFUPM campus, Mohandes, Deriche, Abuelma’atti and Tasadduq (2018), proposed a methodology by enrolling all users alongside their preferred choices of parking. Upon scanning their cards, the system can display the preferred parking areas in accordance to their status that is which all parking spots in the preferred list of spots for that user were vacant. Another widely popular smart campus sus-system is the smart attendance system. These can be found in most of the campuses including schools, colleges and workplaces. The primitive way of marking attendance was manually which took up a large amount of time. In addition to that, the data generated using this method was difficult to read and take out meaningful statistics from it. As per Sarker, Hossain and Jamil (2016), some of the ways in which organizations have been making use this smart attendance system is by using radio frequency, biometrics and password-based devices to mark the attendance. In such a case, a sensor is used to read information from the user. Once this information is fed into the computer, it checks if the data for various identifiers set up by the administration and marks the attendance accordingly. The University of Texas, Austin makes use of the largest microgrid in America to control all electricity, heat and cooling activities of the campus. The Arizona State University has equipped its football stadium with sensors and cameras to provide operational efficiencies (Manning 2020).

Design of a Smart Campus System

The design of this smart campus system is done keeping a college infrastructure in mind. The idea is to design such a system which facilitates a better security system and a smart solar energy-based charging system.

1. ID Card Enable Smart Security System

Colleges, often lay emphasis on ID cards being scanned at the main entries of a college and school. This is done so as to ensure students and staff who have been enrolled in the college database can enter the campus and prevents unknown people from entering the premises and leading to an enhanced security system. In most cases, the security personnel are handed the job to manually check if the ID card is authentic or not. In some cases, it becomes difficult for them to check for the same and then manually type in the data on the card to check if the data is a part of the college database. This is where RFID can help in innovating this methodology. The RFID tag containing user data is swiped across an RFID reader. The RFID reader is connected to a microcontroller. The microcontroller reads the data from the RFID reader and sends it to the main computer which has access to the college database. The microcontroller can be connected through any wired or wireless medium. In this case it is Wi-Fi. The database is checked for information received from the microcontroller. If in case the information stored in a tag is invalid, the system actuates a buzzer or else a green light is triggered signalling that the information is a part of the database. As per Fernandez-Carames, Fraga-Lamas, Suarez-Albela and Castedo (2016), RFID technology has gained immense popularity over the years as it has widely been used for inventory, warehouse management, etc by many organizations across the world. To describe the RFID technology based a flow chart depicting the working methodology of the sub system is used.

2. Smart Library Seating System

As per Liang (2018), IoT systems have been a rapidly emerging technology with the creation of low level and low-cost computer chips. IoT systems can be described as a network of devices connected over the internet. Libraries have had a tendency to be crowded and it can get really tough and time taking in finding a seat at one. This sub system is an approach to help users find vacant spaces at a library using an app and a display screen. The app is used to scan a barcode present at each seat in the library. Anyone before occupying a seat has to scan the barcode using their mobile phones. Each barcode has certain information related to that seat embedded in it. For example, each barcode can have the seat number embedded in it. When a user scans a barcode, the relevant information is sent to a microcontroller using Bluetooth. The microcontroller is connected with a Bluetooth module to help receive data from the app. This information is then displayed over the screen to let people entering the library know where and which seat is vacant in the premises.

Signal Conditioning Used in The Smart Campus System

As per Zheng and Kaiser (2016), since there the RFID tags do not have an active transmitter, the leaked signals from the transmitter of the reader might be greater than the backscattered signal. In such cases, the process of bandpass filtering can be used to filter out the backscattered signals from the leaked signals as an effective signal conditioning technique. As per Hlaing Oo and Soe (2019), the integration of an active bandpass filter with 125kHz when integrated with RFID readers, helped in achieving a sharp magnitude for the specific frequency of the RFID reader. Bluetooth is a type of wireless technology used for short ranges. Also many Bluetooth and Wi-Fi systems share the same frequency of 2.4GHz. In such cases, it becomes important to minimize the interference between the two so as to optimize the efficiency of these individual networks. As per Pei et al (2017), the AFH mechanism can be used in such a case to decrease the Bluetooth interference with the Wi-Fi signals. It changes the frequency hopping sequence of the device.

Proposal for Next Phase in Development

Organizations across the world make use of industrial grade microcontrollers, sensors and actuators while setting up smart campus systems or its sub-systems. These devices use state of the art components to provide an efficient smart campus system. An approach to set up a low cost sub system can be with the use of cheap but efficient microcontrollers. One such widely available and low cost microcontrollers is the Arduino board. As per Chen and Li (2017), the Arduino platform is an easy to use and affordable device which can be paired with a wide range of sensors, actuators and DAQ systems. As per Myint and Nyein (2018), PLX-DAQ is one of the most common DAQ systems used with the Arduino board. It acts an interface between the board and the computer and stores the data read by the Arduino on a Microsoft Excel sheet. As per Jiloudi (2019), some of the industrial grade wireless network protocols which can be implemented in the proposed smart campus system can be MODBUS which provides an industrial grade IoT environment. It forms the base for most industrial grade control systems and many SCADA dependent applications. Another industrial grade network protocol can be MQTT. It works in parallel with MODBUS and is used for asynchronous communication.

Conclusion on Smart Campus Systems Analysis

Smart campus system have been key component in the infrastructure of modern day organizations. These systems have helped add a smartness quotient to devices which help them work in a more effective and efficient way in comparison to their primitive methodologies. This report discussed some existing examples of existing smart campus systems in the world. An approach with new sub-systems were also discussed which included the ID card enabled smart security system and the smart library seating arrangement. Many smart campus systems make use of industrial grade components which although provide high end results but have costs associated with them. An approach to use low cost microcontrollers was also made to implement the same proposed sub-systems. The report also discussed some of the existing industrial grade network protocols which can be used to implement the sub-systems.

References for Smart Campus Systems Analysis

Widya Sari, M., Wahyu Ciptadi, P. and Hafid Hardyanto, R. 2017. Study of smart campus development using internet of things technology. p 012032.

Muhamad, W., Kurniawan, N.B. and Yazid, S. 2017. Smart campus features, technologies, and applications: A systematic literature review In 2017 International Conference on Information Technology Systems and Innovation (ICITSI). pp. 384-391.

Mohandes, M., Deriche, M., Abuelma'atti, M.T. and Tasadduq, N., 2018. Preference-based smart parking system in a university campus In IET Intelligent Transport Systems. 13(2). pp 417-423.

Sarker, D.K., Hossain, N.I. and Jamil, I.A. 2016. Design and implementation of smart attendance management system using multiple step authentication In 2016 International Workshop on Computational Intelligence (IWCI). pp 91-95.

Manning, K. 2020. 8 Smart Campus Technology Examples. [Online]. Available at: https://www.processmaker.com/blog/8-examples-of-smart-campus-technology/

Fernández-Caramés, T.M., Fraga-Lamas, P., Suárez-Albela, M. and Castedo, L. 2017. Reverse engineering and security evaluation of commercial tags for RFID-based IoT applications. Sensors. 17(1). p 28. DoI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010028

Liang, X. 2018. Internet of Things and its applications in libraries: a literature review In Library Hi Tech.

Zheng, F. and Kaiser, T. 2016. Digital Signal Processing for RFID.

Hlaing Oo, S. and Soe, K. T. T. 2019. Design analysis on active bandpass filter for RFID reader In Proceedings of conference on science and technology development 2019. 2.

Pei, L., Liu, J., Chen, Y., Chen, R. and Chen, L., 2017. Evaluation of fingerprinting-based WiFi indoor localization coexisted with Bluetooth In The Journal of Global Positioning Systems, 15(1). p 3.

Chen, X. and Li, H., 2017. ArControl: An Arduino-based comprehensive behavioural platform with real-time performance In Frontiers in behavioural neuroscience. 11. p 244.

San Myint, K. and Nyein, C.M.M., 2018. Fingerprint Based Attendance System Using Arduino In 2018 International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 8(7). DoI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.7.2018.p7967

Jiloudi, S. 2019. Communication Protocols of an Industrial Internet of Things Environment: A Comparative Study. [Online]. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/11/3/66/pdf

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