• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : COU305A
  • University : Jansen Newman Institute
  • Subject Name : social science research

Essay ‐ Crisis Intervention

Introduction

This essay throws light on physiological crises intervention work that unfolds the aftermath of a bushfire. Crises intervention refers to the process that aids an individual to cope up with the experience that leads to emotional, mental and behavioural distress in their life (Bardwell, Fleming, Collins, Boyd & McNeil, 2019). This crisis can be any kind of situation which perceives an immediate loss of ability to use effective problem-solving skills. Apart from this, crises may be in the form of natural disaster, sudden death, specific emotional crises and so on. This will lead to impact the thinking and understanding ability of an individual. Crises intervention will be helpful in dealing with this kind of crises as physiological care to minimize the long term causes of this traumas. This essay is fragmented into four sections and each section demonstrates the work of crises intervention after the crises to assist people with physiological recovery. This essay is fragmented into five sections in the first section background and the core crises intervention will be discussed and addressed. In the second section shift in the crises intervention will be discussed while in the third section naturalistic recovery and professional crises intervention for the early treatment gain. Apart from this a justifiable conclusion and recommendation are also discussed at the end of the essay.

Background

A bushfire has engulfed the entire town and many death and causalities are found. Bushfire has caused multiple effects on the life of the people living in that town. These effects disturb them physically as well as emotionally (Pollack & Reiser, 2020). Physical issues will be resolved by taking long medical care while the emotional instability leads to impact the way of livelihood. In order to make them emotionally stable crises, intervention worker assists with psychosocial recovery. Crises intervention worker are the trained mental health professional who assists and support persons in suffering. Apart from this crises intervention is defined as the short form of treatment to assist patient that are dealing with the immediate aftermath of a crises condition. In most of the situations, it is observed that counsellors deliver counselling services to the clients to communicate them and prevent them from psychological trauma and help them to return in their normal life. Crises intervention worker help individuals to start their life again by providing emotional support and encouraged them to face the situation and discuss their experience with other members. The individual that have faced crises are often reached at the point of physiological shock and could not handle the aftermath of a crises situation.

Crises Intervention 

An uncontrolled fire leads to various consequences for the people living there and leaves its impact for a longer period of time. People were not able to cope up with the incident for a longer period of time and do not perceive their life normally. In such kind of situation crises, intervention help other people to cope up with the impacts of bush fire and function their work normally (Wood, Domingues, Howard & Said, 2017). After a bushfire, the first thing that needs to be addressed is to analyzes the loss and casualties in that specific area and analyze the mental status of the people at that point. After viewing the entire scenario immediate help will be provided by the crises intervention officer and to the individuals who have experienced this event and suffer a lot.  The main goal of crises intervention is to understand the suffering that people have faced after the bush fire and assist them with the necessary resources such as food, shelter and so on. The purpose of this is to reduce the intensity of an emotional and behavioural reaction to crises. Intervention can take place in the hospitals and crises centre.  The very first step that must be addressed is to identify the precipitating factor and determine an individual subjective reaction towards the precipitating factor.

The second step is to address the context of the crises situation containing the hazardous event. Apart from this, it is essential to address the present condition of an individual who is suffering from crises. This all steps is known as the assessment phase of the intervention. The next phase is the implementation phase which comprises of obtaining background information related to the individual suffering from the crises and set immediate objectives in order to accomplish the set goals of the crises intervention process (Eriksen, 2017). All the strategies are implemented to make patients to analyzes the weakness and the strength of the individuals and make them motivated and courageous to face problems with maximum potential. The next phase is the termination phase in which the client and therapist review the progress of the patient and setting the future plan for the patient. In this whole process, the crises intervention worker needs to build an effective relationship with the patient so that they can trust them and share their experience. Communication plays a very essential part of this process.

Apart from this, there are various intervention techniques adopted by the professionals to help the patient to resolve all the issues in minimum period of time (Sweeney, Filson, Kennedy, Collinson & Gillard, 2018). There are four crises intervention techniques used by the professional are comprises of affective interventions, cognitive intervention, environmental manipulation and behavioural task. In contradicting to this techniques Hollis crises intervention theory depicts that there are four types of technologies that need to be addressed after the bushfire such as sustainment technique which is initially used in the crises intervention in order to provide emotional support to the patient. The next technique is the direct influence which advises a particular course of action to the mobilizing appropriate support system. The third technique is the reflection technique that helps the patient to resolve particular aspects of the crises situation. The last technique is the dynamic and the developmental understanding which helps to understand the client situation in the deeper way in order to make them help patient to cope up with the situation and live the normal life. 

The shift in crises intervention

It has been noticed that there is a shift in crises intervention work away from mandatory critical accidents stress debriefing towards psychological first aid. This is due to the ineffective results of critical accidents stress debriefing on primary trauma victims. This process is considered as the short term process that solely focuses on immediate help to the individual suffering from trauma. This process is specially designed to help people dealing with trauma one incident at the time by taking with them without any criticism or opinion (Reid, Beilin & McLennan, 2020). This program is conducted by the experts that are the first respondent such as police, emergency medical service and so on. The process is entirely confidential and only the patient is involved in this process in order to set a normal standard of stress. The main focus of this process is to enable people to go back to their normal routine after the crises as soon as possible. The main criticism and defect of this process are that it is only effective for secondary victims such as emergency services personnel. In order to resolve this issue, a new process is evolved that is psychological first aid.

Psychological first aid 

Psychological first aid is the process that is created to bring down the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder. This process is developed by the national centre for post-traumatic stress disorder. As per this process, a modern approach is accepted for assisting people to deal with crises and live a normal life. This process is implemented by non-mental health experts and this process does not include such kind of discussion related to a traumatic event. The main component of this process includes a sense of safety, calmness, collective efficacy and connection and hope. Sense of safety here refers to shield the patient form a disturbing situation and give them a safe and normal environment. The professionals demonstrate them that the thunderstorm has passed and everything is normal. Making them calm by calmly talking to them and understand their point of view without judging. Creating a calm environment around them is quite tough task as patients are already suffering from a difficult situation. Apart from this, creating collective efficacy refers to showing patients their strengths to fight with the situation and live a normal life without having any kind of mental stress. In addition, creating a connection with the patient create plays a cardinal role in the recovery of the patient. The last tool in this process is the "hope “that everything will be fine even if the present situation is grim, it can be converted to better. 

Naturalistic recovery and watchful waiting 

Natural recovery refers to the recovery that occurs without treatment or professional’s supports while on other hand watchful waiting refers to the approach which is implemented by doctors in which time is permitted to pass on before the treatment or crises intervention is performed. At this time repeated testing process is performed (Jacobs, 2020). This approach is recommended in the circumstances with the high likelihood of self-resolution.  Apart from this, professional crises intervention for the symptomatic people is very important as this will lead to fast treatment for the people who are facing any kind of trauma at initial stages. This symptom may include posttraumatic stress indicators, anxiety indicators and depression (Samimian-Darash & Rotem, 2019). These are the initial symptoms which can take huge shape if it is not treated within a specified time duration.  

Early treatment gain 

Early intervention helps to prevent the problem occurring and provide strength to tackle the problem in the most appropriate way. The study has discussed the impact of bushfire on the life of the people living in the town. Bushfire leads to multiple damages such as it destroy a large area of land and nature (Alexandrino-Silva et al, 2019). The early treatment gain refers to the knowledge and information related to the bushfire should be known by the people living in that town. It is very important to be aware of the information and the consequences of bushfire. Every individual should be aware of the thing things that need to be done at the time of bushfire. Children, as well as elder ones, should know the things that must be done in case of a bushfire. Children should acknowledge the danger of bushfire, wear protective clothes, shut all doors and windows, alert everyone near you and so on. Elder ones should have emergency kits such as relocation kits, survival kit and recovery kit in order to deal at the time of crises (Rapp, Chavira, Sugar & Asarnow, 2017). Parents and children should be alert and immediately inform the rescue team to take everything in control.  There are some basic steps that everyone should take at the time of bushfire such as going out at a safe place, wear clothes that do not catch fire and so on. These are some basic steps that everyone should adopt at the time of bushfire.

Conclusion 

It is concluded from the study that Crises intervention is the process that helps an individual to cope up with the experience that leads to emotional, mental and behavioural distress in their life. Crises are of distinct types such as natural disaster, sudden death, specific emotional crises and so on. The main goal of crises intervention is to comprehend the suffering that people have faced after the bushfire and assist them with the necessary resources such as food, shelter etc. Apart from this, it is noted that there is a shift in crises intervention work away from mandatory critical accidents stress debriefing towards psychological first aid. Psychological first aid refers to the short term process that solely focuses on immediate help to the individual suffering from trauma. In addition, natural recovery is the recovery process that occurs without treatment or professional's supports while on other hand watchful waiting refers to the approach which is implemented by doctors in which time is permitted to pass on before the treatment or crises intervention is performed. However early intervention helps to prevent the problem occurring and provide strength to tackle the problem in the most appropriate way.

References 

Alexandrino-Silva, C., Ribeiz, S. R., Frigerio, M. B., Bassolli, L., Alves, T. F., Busatto, G., & Bottino, C. (2019). Prevention of depression and anxiety in community-dwelling older adults: the role of physical activity. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo), 46(1), 14-20.

Bardwell, G., Fleming, T., Collins, A. B., Boyd, J., & McNeil, R. (2019). Addressing intersecting housing and overdose crises in Vancouver, Canada: opportunities and challenges from a tenant-led overdose response intervention in single-room occupancy hotels. Journal of Urban Health, 96(1), 12-20.

Eriksen, C. (2017). Research Ethics, Trauma and Self-care: reflections on disaster geographies. Australian geographer, 48(2), 273-278.

Jacobs, G. A. (2020). Strengths and Application of Response Team vs. Community-Based Models of Psychological First Aid. Positive Psychological Approaches to Disaster (pp. 137-154). Springer, Cham.

Pollack, D., & Reiser, R. (2020). Should the world intervene when a country refuses disaster relief?.

Rapp, A. M., Chavira, D. A., Sugar, C. A., & Asarnow, J. R. (2017). Integrated primary medical-behavioural health care for adolescent and young adult depression: Predictors of service use in the youth partners in care trial. Journal of pediatric psychology, 42(9), 1051-1064.

Reid, K., Beilin, R., & McLennan, J. (2020). Communities and responsibility: Narratives of place-identity in Australian bushfire landscapes. Geoforum, 109, 35-43.

Samimian-Darash, L., & Rotem, N. (2019). From Crisis to Emergency: The Shifting Logic of Preparedness. Ethnos, 84(5), 910-926.

Sweeney, A., Filson, B., Kennedy, A., Collinson, L., & Gillard, S. (2018). A paradigm shift: relationships in trauma-informed mental health services. BJPsych Advances, 24(5), 319-333.

Wood, C. E., Domingues, J., Howard, J. M., & Said, S. (2017). Understanding and Responding to Crisis and Trauma in the School Setting. In Handbook of Australian School Psychology (pp. 413-434). Springer, Cham.



 

               

  

 

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