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  • Subject Name : Indigenous Studies

Various Troubles to The Indigenous Communities

The introduction of globalization and modernization in New Zealand resulted in the development and advancement of the country, it also caused various troubles to the indigenous communities of the country (Moewaka & McCreanor, 2019). To protect the interest of such communities, various legislations were enacted and implemented.

The Children, Young Persons and their Families Act 1989 was enacted to protect the indigenous tribes and communities from ant sort of harm such as alienation, discrimination or exclusion. The main purpose of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act (1989) is to support the health and contentment of children, young people and their families and groups within their communities. Furthermore, the Act was implemented with the object that children's inclusion in their communities and family groups must be improved, communities and family groups must be facilitated of caring for their children and, if necessary, families or family groups must be supported in addressing the challenges of children who seek treatment or safety or have committed a criminal offence (Burford, 2017).

Another legislation enacted to protect the members of tribal and indigenous communities from any form of discrimination or risk in regards to their health and safety is the Health and Safety Act 1992. The primary purpose of this Act is to deter harms from happening to workers, guests, suppliers and sub-contractors when they are at the place of work (Bassett, Wilkinson & Mannakkara, 2017). It is achieved by increasing a broad variety of regulatory obligations on companies and workers. It changes the focus from risk control to "all practicable measures" in the reduction and control of risk. Under an expanded concept of duty, PCBU's will maintain the health and welfare of workers and all personnel participating in relevant operations. The PCBUs have a "performance-based" obligation to mitigate the danger "as far as is fairly feasible" or to reduce the risk "as far as fairly feasible" if that is not practicable.

Moreover, a year after the implementation of health and safety legislation, the Privacy Act 1993 was enacted. This Act seeks to encourage and protect the privacy of individuals, and in essence to set down guidelines for collection, processing as well as disclosure of confidential information and entry to information kept about individual people.

These legislations have played a vital role in supporting the philosophy of Hauora by protecting the physical, emotional, psychological and social health and well-being of the community members. In general terms, the laws have aimed to provide complete protection and strengthening of the four dimensions of Hauora, that is, the physical, emotional/mental, social and spiritual caring of the members (Bennett & Liu, 2018).

The Act of 1989 has provided socially as well as monetary support to the members where they lack the basic resources essential to living. By this, the legislation has ensured a healthy environment and surrounding for the upbringing of children and lives of their families and family groups or whānau (Burford, 2017). The 1992 Act has provided physical health and safety provisions of the whānau, hapū, and iwi by issuing guidelines to ensure their physical health and safety at workplace and during the course of employment (Bassett, Wilkinson & Mannakkara, 2017). Furthermore, the Privacy Act 1993 ensures that the personal data and information of individuals of the tribes and communities are protected and prevented from being misused as it can result in the violation of privacy and further harassment of the individuals or community as a whole (Statistics New Zealand 2016).


Bassett, M., Wilkinson, S., & Mannakkara, S. (2017). Legislation for building back better of horizontal infrastructure. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 26(1), 94-104.

Bennett, S. T., & Liu, J. H. (2018). Historical trajectories for reclaiming an indigenous identity in mental health interventions for Aotearoa/New Zealand—Māori values, biculturalism, and multiculturalism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 62, 93-102.

Burford, G. (2017). Family group conferencing: New directions in community-centered child and family practice, New Zealand: Routledge.

Moewaka B. H., & McCreanor, T. (2019). Colonisation, hauora and whenua in Aotearoa. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 49(1), 19-33.

Statistics New Zealand. (2016). Integrated data infrastructure extension: Privacy impact assessment.

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