Nurses have to adopt the evidence based practice for remaining updates with the latest developments taking place in the healthcare sector according to LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2017). It has been explained by Schmidt, N. A., & Brown, J. M. (2017), as making use of best available evidence conscientiously and explicitly to arrive at healthcare decisions related to any patient. The model of evidence base practice as given below has three centers of concern and these are clinical expertise, best evidence and values and preferences of the patient. The healthcare professionals have to combine their clinical expertise along with the best evidences which are available from the researches and keep in consideration the values and preferences of the patient.
In a PACU (Post-Anesthesia Care Unit) there are always the issue of patient wanting alternative methods for pain reduction which are not invasive and do not have side-effects. As there are many patients who do not want to intake a lot of pharmaceutical medicines because of the evidence that they have a number of side-effects which often reflect in their bodies later. Moreover, in some cases of post-operative patients the use of pharmacological methods for pain reduction have been found to be ineffective. The reason is that every individual has his own body reactions for the administered opioids for relieving pain. Therefore, the use of pharmacological interventions for pain reductions have limited and use and it also attracts a number of side-effects on the health of the patient. Recent researches have shown a number of non-pharmacological methods of pain reduction and its management like use of music and yoga. However, still the nursing protocols are lacking in implementation of such non-pharmacological methods for pain management especially in post-operative patients according to Poulsen, M. J., &Coto, J. (2018). As a nurse, it is important that only such approaches are adopted for health intervention which clear evidence. This is done by adopting an evidence based practice (EBP). In this case for the post-operative patient the intervention of music is explored by the PICO table and pyramid of quality of evidence for finding out the relevant research which points at the use of music intervention for pain management.
The table given below showcases the search strategies which were used for finding out the relevant research for EBP on non-pharmacological methods for pain management. Different key words like music helps in pain management were used for searching for the relevant research.
The research which was selected for EBP was conducted by Poulsen, M. J., et al. (2018). In their study they have done a systematic review of the past researches on this topic and this is why this study was selected. In their research they have pointed out that pain is a concerning factor the nurses and the patients in the post-operative period. There are alternative methods for pain management however, they have not been applied by the healthcare organizations. Intervention of music has been reported by many studies as an effective methods for the pain management and has given positive results in the reduction of post-operative pain, use of opioids and anxiety in patients. But the implementation of this intervention is not popular as there are insufficient protocols for nursing practice. They have developed protocols for music intervention to manage pain and provided with recommendations which can be adopted by the healthcare organizations.
According to their study the use of calming and soft tones of music for 15 to 30 minutes two times daily both post and pre-operative periods have been found to be effective in the pain management. They have recommended the use of music as an adjunct with the other standards of care and not as a primary method for management of pain and thus with this the nurses can help in reducing the surgical pain and use of opioids.
The healthcare services requires the professionals to be updated with the new researches so as to provide best possible care for their patients. For applying any new intervention or approach the healthcare professional rely on evidence based practice. It is thus established through EBP that use of music for pain intervention is a non-expensive, non-invasive, non-pharmacological method for pain management which is not risky for the patients.
Good, M. (1996). Effects of relaxation and music on postoperative pain a review. Journal of advanced nursing, 24(5), 905-914.
Khalil, N. S. (2018). Critical care nurses use of non-pharmacological pain management methods in Egypt. Applied Nursing Research, 44, 33-38.
Krlea-Jeri, K., Gabelica, M., Banzi, R., Krni-Martini, M., Pulido, B., Mahmi-Kaknjo, M., ... amp Hrgovi, I. (2016). IMPACT Observatory tracking the evolution of clinical trial data sharing and research integrity. Biochemia medica Biochemia medica, 26(3), 308-317.
LoBiondo-Wood, G., amp Haber, J. (2017). Nursing research Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
zer, N., zl, Z. K., Arslan, S., amp Gnes, N. (2013). Effect of music on postoperative pain and physiologic parameters of patients after open heart surgery. Pain Management Nursing, 14(1), 20-28.
Poulsen M. J., Coto J., .Cooney M. F. (2019). Music as a Postoperative Pain Management Intervention. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing. March 2019.
Poulsen, M. J., amp Coto, J. (2018). Nursing music protocol and postoperative pain. Pain Management Nursing, 19(2), 172-176.
Schmillen, H. (August 9, 2017). What is evidence-based practice (EBP) or evidence-based medicine (EBM). Ohio University Library. Retrieved from https//www.library.ohio.edu/question/what-is-evidence-based-practice-ebp-or-evidence-based-medicine-ebm/
Schmidt, N. A., amp Brown, J. M. (2017). Evidence-based practice for nurses. Jones amp Bartlett Learning.
Schneider, M. A. (2018). The effect of listening to music on postoperative pain in adult orthopedic patients. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 36(1), 23-32.
Surucu, S. G., Ozturk, M., Vurgec, B. A., Alan, S., amp Akbas, M. (2018). The effect of music on pain and anxiety of women during labour on first time pregnancy A study from Turkey. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 30, 96-102.
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