1. There are many future challenges for the healthcare system which, at present, it is not well prepared for. Identify and briefly explain at least three (3) of these challenges.
Elderly population develop many internal and external changes as body grow older. These changes require a close intervention by the registered nurse. The morbidity and mortality rate increase as the person grow older. This hanges can also lead to the development of chronic disorder, or any other life threatening disease. Thus, in this regards many policies, approaches need to be implemented in the health care setting to reduce the mortal rate and to reduce the suffer rate of these individuals. The implementation of policies sometime becomes a challenging situation for the health care setting (Cristea, Noja, Stefea, & Sala, 2019).
Chronic disease are the leading cause of death and is prevalent in all age groups, ethnicity, gender, and all race. Current scenario state that multiple chronic disease now affect the children, adolescent, s well as adults. These result in physical inactivity, obesity, and sometime mental distress. To the healthcare setting, these chronic condition become a challenge in terms of healthcare expenditure, workforce, healthcare staff, medical resource availability, and healthcare maintenances (Anderson & Durstine, 2019).
The economic climate determines the successful integration of scientific knowledge, life sciences innovation, health science. These innovation, treatments, and knowledge require a good source of income and funding. However, today market scenario shows that the economic climate is posing a challenge for future innovation (Ferraz, 2015).
2. Who is responsible for funding
a) The public health sector?
The services accessed through public sector are funded by local, state, and federal governments. These government organisations are responsible for funding in health sector (The Australian Health System).
b) The private health sector?
The private health care funding is done by employees, health insurance, personal loans, and patients admitted to the private hospitals (The Australian Health System).
3. What does public health aim to do for populations? Which model of health is it based on?
The public health aim to built a population based approach to fulfil the healthcare goals. Other than traditional biomedical model, the public health follows the cross-sectoral collaboration tool. The main motive of the adoption of tools is t promote communities health (Shahzad, M et al, 2019). The public health aimed to use different synergy to implement good health for population. The synergy includes coordinating health services; population respective to clinical practice; identifying and addressing community health problem; strengthening health promotion and health protection. These synergies will fulfil the healthcare goals and implement positive turnover on the health of population.
4. Briefly define primary care and name an example of a type of service a person might experience when accessing primary care
Primary care is a an essential health care services being provided to individual in compliance of global standards it is the integral part of country’s health care system with social, economical and political consideration. The type of services included under primary health care are provision of clean water, hygiene promotion, mother and child care, treatment of common illness, provision of drugs, mental health, outpatient and inpatient curative care (ICRC, 2019).
While assessing primary care, person might experience diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illness, health care treatments, rapid diagnosis of the disease, first-aid treatment in variety of healthcare settings like inpatient office, critical care system, day-care, and other home care setting (Wilson, et al, 2015).
5. Which three lifestyle factors are included in the National Preventative Health Strategy? Why are they included and considered so important?
Lifestyle factor included in the strategy are Alcohol, illicit drugs, and Tobacco intake. These three lifestyle causes the ill health condition of individual and also responsible for causing health problem.
The strategies included and considered important because the council feel that the strategy aims to help Australian to improve their health a different stages of life. The council state that early intervention, ood information, identifying risk factor, treating the and targeting the modified risk factor, and also identify the broader causes of poor health (National Preventive Health Strategy, 2020).
6. When an indigenous person goes to hospital, there is one particular health professional who should be included in the multidisciplinary team.
c) Name this health professional
d) Community nurse would be the health professional
e) Name two reasons why this health professional is important for indigenous patients
He/she is responsible because:
He would help in removing the traditional beliefs among indigenous people. Primary health care is a key pathway for achieving the health of indigenous people.
Collaborative strategies help in mobilising partnerships in terms of health care need, health facilities, and on time- delivery of health care (Henderson, Montesanti, Crowshoe, & Leduc, 2018).
7. Describe two challenges of an ageing population to the healthcare system.
According to World Health Organisation, elderly population size increases in near future. The life expectancy f geriatric population decreases and turned from infectious to chronic conditions. It state that the elderly population develop higher chances of chronic disease such as arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, heart disease, and cancer. This condition will have an adverse impact on the life, survival rate, and the medical resources in context to older people. Thus create a biggest challenge to the healthcare system.
With increase in age, the prevalence and expectance of multi-morbidity increases, that result in development of multi-chronic disease. The risk factors associated with the development of hose disease include alcohol intake, smoking, over-nutrition, undr-nutrition, lack f physical activity, and depression. These conditions will require a primary care and geriatric based medicine to deal with the complex multiple disorder in geriatric population (Mahishale, 2015). Futher this will pose a chaalenge on the healthcare system
8. If an 85-year-old person and a 22-year-old person both broke their leg, would there be any difference between their care needs? Why or why not? Explain.
Yes, both will require different health care need. This is because geriatric person have fratile, week bone strength with weaker bone density. While, the young adult have denser bone with superior strength. Moreover, the recovery rate for younger person is far better as compared to the older. The old age people are weker in terms of physical fitness, bone strength, and orthopaedic condition while the young idividual is strong in terms of orthopaedic, bones strength, and fitnees. Thus older patient will take more time to recover as compared to younger patient therefore both will require different health care plans
9. Explain how the presence of mental illness can be a significant contributing factor to the development of other chronic diseases (e.g. diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease) in an individual.
Mental illness is a one of the contributing factor for the development of chronic disease. From a study it was found that, prevalence of depressive disorder result in development of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, diabetes, and sometime cancer (National centre for chronic disease and prevention and health promotion). The study state that poor mental health is directly related with occurrence of chronic disease (Western Australia, 2019).
10. What is osteoporosis? How can it impact the people who have it?
Oesteoporosis is one f the common bone disease in humans. The older people, and womens are more at a risk of developing disease. The disease is characterised by low bone mass, inferior bone micro architecture, deteriorated bone tissue, and inferior bone density. The prevalence of disease occur as the people get older. Oestoporosis is also known as silent disease which can cause important secondary health problems and even death (Sozen, Ozisik, Baran, 2016). The secondary causes of oesteoporossis are unhealthy lifestyle, genetic disease, endocrine disorder, and other medical history. The symptoms associated with disease include chronic pain, restricted mobility, fear of fall, and fracture. The patients suffering from osteoporosis, also develop a negative influence on the quality of life. The patient suffers from physical, psychological, social, emotional and monetary burden (Ashiq, Rehman, Sana, & Ahlam, 2017).
Ashiq, K., Rehman, K., Sana, A., Ahlam, S. (2017). Influence of osteoporosis on quality of life and current strategies for its management and treatment. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1, 34-40.
Cristea, M., Noja, G., Stefea, P., Sala, A. (2019). The impact of population aging and public health support on EU labour markets. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 17, 1-27.
Ferraz, M. (2015). Health care: the challenge to deal with the uncertainty and value judgement. Cost
Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 13, 1-10.
Garza, A. (2016). The aging population: the increasing effects on health care. Retrived from https://www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/issue/2016/January2016/The-Aging-Population-The-Increasing-Effects-on-Health-Care
Henderson, R., Montesanti, S., Crowshoe, L., & Leduc, C. (2018). Advancing indegineous primary health care policy in Alberta, anada. Health Policy, 122, 638-644. ICRC, 2019. Retrived from https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0887.pdf
Mahishale, V. (2015). Aging world: Health are challenges. Journal of scientific society, 42, 138-143.
National centre for chronic prevention and health promotion. (N.D.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/tools-resources/pdfs/issue-brief-no-2-mental-health-and-chronic-disease.pdf.
National Preventive Health Strategy (2020). Retrieved from https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/national-preventive-health-strategy#:~:text=The%20Strategy%20aims%20to%20help,broader%20causes%20of%20poor%20health.
Physical activity, exercise, and hronic disease: A brief review. (2020). Sports Medicine and Health Science, 1, 3-10.
Shahzad, M., Upshur,R., Bharmal, A., Wi, X., Feng, P., & Brown, A. (2015). A population-based approach to integrated healthcare delivery: a scoping review of clinical care and public health collaboration. BMC Public Health, 19, 1-15.
Sozen, T., Ozissik, L., & Basaran, N. C.. (2016). An overview and management of osteoporosis. European Journal of Rheumatology, 4, 46-56. The Australian Health System. Retrieved from https://www.health.gov.au/about-us/the-australian-healthsystem#:~:text=Medicare%20and%20the%20public%20hospital,cost%20of%20your%20health%20care Western Australia. Retrieved from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-02-poor-mental-health-linked-chronic.html
Wilson, et al. (2015). Building primary care in a changing Europe. World Health Organisation, 38, Copenhagen,.
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