Ans1. There are three strategies for reading, these are skimming, scanning and in-depth reading. Skimming is to read a text, primarily the heading and the first paragraph of it, it ordinarily necessitates three forms that are preview, overview, and review. Skimming constitutes the quick reading of the phrase, making the quick movement of the eyes to interpret the requisite information (Darmawan, 2017). Scanning involves attaining a definite purpose or a word possibly to find an answer to a question or seeking quotation or argument (Yusuf et al., 2017). In-depth is the most intuitive style and incorporates the profound involvement of the reader to grasp the concepts and argument of the text. For example, in the given classic text in-depth reading is imperative, Doctor's behavior with Mayor and his treatment without anesthesia needs a conceptual comprehension of the text and hence, in-depth reading is required.
Ans2. The context of the text is a political system, that is insensitive to society, and the exploitation in the system had lead to the demise of "twenty men". It is not explicit in the text of the reason, yet in a common man there is anger, and they seek justice. Purpose of text is clear, people demand justice for the deeds executed by the corrupt political section, and the judgments which negatively influenced the lives of the people in the society. G.G. Marquez aspired to scrutinize the political class and justice for the people. The registers employed are formal, the voice of Doctor and Mayor is quite formal, the use of greetings, professional terms by the doctor, and the mayor is evident. Even the child is using a formal sentence, as the attendant in the conventional positions.
Ans3. G.G. Marquez has conveyed the character of the narrator in the given passage. He is using this text as a medium to show his impressions and perspective for the political class and prejudice predominating in society. He even takes revenge with the decision makers and shows that at one place Mayor takes judgments, and on the other Aurelio Escovar takes entire control of the situation and authority, even if it hurts the respondent which is the Mayor in the passage. It is ironic that the Mayor needs to go through deliberate pain which is prompted by Escovar as an act of revenge for the "twenty" dead men. Marquez by eyes and spirit of Doctor desires to treat the political class and his approach towards the profession is firm and crystal clear.
Ans4. Structurally, the text is orderly written, events occur sequentially and chronologically, just like in real life. The text also holds two problem allegations, one is of Doctor's problem with the mayor and another is of Mayor's toothache, which eventually leads to the climax, and clarification is possibly achieved by both parties. The background is justly given by the writer, and there are qualitative details of the room that assists to visualize the context and condition of the Doctor. There are dialogues, that are formal in structure and the doctor and mayor have explicitly defined the assortment of behavior.
Ans5. The addressed text has numerous themes and foremost points. One of the central motives is the political remark on power corridors of the society or a country, which is apparently analyzed by treatment of Mayor by the Doctor. With the existence of Mayor in the text also manifests the notions of democracy, liberty, and rule of law. Second, is the scientific development of contemporary time, in which the society is progressing towards qualitative development of the society, there are doctors, and there is a progress in the science i.e. with the use of "drills" and equipment in operations. Third, is the social obstacle or atrocities given by the Doctor who is treating patients without any qualification. It explicates that to earn and sustain in the planet people employ several means, even resort to false means.
Ans6. Marquez has written an effective play. The first paragraph itself has ascertained the character of the Aurelio Escovar, a doctor, who is disciplined, with a focus on "tooth" just like that of mayor is enormous. It is one of the concealed messages that amplified the effect of the text, in which he writes that he punches drills inside tooth even if it not required, which explicates the aggression and the seeking of justice by common people from the powerful people. He further writes that Mayor who holds power do not adhere to the law which can be supported by the statement when doctor's child says that "If you don't take out his tooth, he'll shoot you", this exposes the corrupt administration of the city and political class.
Ans7. "One of these days" is a formal toned text, which precisely targets a severe problem in the society. Marquez has described clearly the background and setting of the story, that shows the targeted message he aspires to address to the readers. The persona of the Doctor is also disciplined who is committed to working and communicates only what is required even to his son. He is in anger, and a tooth is just a reference to the corrupt system. Mayor is another character that holds power, yet lacks the inner power that can be interpreted from the treatment of his toothache leading to the teary eyes. The doctor takes revenge, but he also attempted to pamper the Mayor by offering fresh cloth to wipe tears. Marquez has apparently created characters, plot, and messages.
Ans8. The text has a prominent message and effectiveness. Marquez has successfully conveyed the emotions, message, and the anger of the Doctor to the reader. The text also attempted to reveal multiple lurked messages, and symbols that correlated with reality. As we encounter all these political obstacles in our everyday lives, the doctor has successfully conceived an impression in the story with his discipline, plain language, and with no fear from various threats which shows his strength and will to attain a result with intense dedication even without any formal knowledge of the system or society. He is too professional and genius in his work that without even inspecting the work he is doing, he does ideally. Overall, the writer has created an effective story to narrate.
Ans9. "One of these days" is truly a mesmerizing text, which adorns itself to capture ideas, and thoughts of the readers. It also manifests the strains in society, whereas it also trivializes the entire message into the operation of a tooth, which is a comic aspect of the text. Doctor's character is strongly footed, motivated, dedicated whereas the Mayor's persona is influential from the outside yet hollow from inside. The tooth is certainly an aching point in our lives that need to be eliminated at one point of time as the doctor did with the mayor, where tooth depicts the corrupt powers, destruction, and pain in the society.
Ans1. The report suggests the significant shift in education delivery system, pedagogy, and effect on the teacher, students, and their relationships. It states that due to technological advancements, globalization and because of research and development, there is a shift in how a student approach learning new skills such as language, and traditional subjects. The young can easily grasp technological advancements than people who are adults. The traditional approaches such as language labs are now virtually extinct, and students are learning languages without rote learning and memorization, but approaching it in a more robust manner, now there is a customizable and learning-centered approach. The language learning is also linked to leadership skills, even former president Obama pressed the need for a more verbal based approach in this new era of amalgamation of different cultures and people. The report explores some myths, one is saying that language learning is easy. It states that there is a need for dedication, consistent efforts for a long period of time to learn a new language and become fluent. In this new era, old authoritarian models of learning are phased away and new gentler methods are used, educators are now employing creative based approach for leaning. The technology is amplifying the need for strict, and compartmental based learning solutions. There is a need for reconceptualizing of learning methods, and the trend is moving in forward in a way to empower students to communicate in the globalized world.
Ans2. The report starts with criticizing some of the ideas which are prevalent in language learning ecosystem. First is that language learning increases employability, but there is a need for more than only learning a language. Numeracy, thinking skills, computer use, and team spirit are some of the key skills needed for better employment opportunities (Page 7). Only language learning does not guarantee better jobs. There was a myth of 10,000 hours, the report criticizes the idea by Malcolm Gladwell (Page 8) that these numbers of hours are not required to attain fluency, but it is the dedication and constant efforts for a long period of time which benefits a student in learning a new language fluently. It also states the change in perception of teachers in today's world, where they were considered sacred long time ago, now it is not the case, and even young can now grasp more than adults. The language labs which were the important component of language learning in the previous century phased out with technological development. The report not only critics the earlier ideas but suggests new ideas which replaced earlier ones. The student portfolio is now increasingly in use, are gaining popularity at a rapid pace. With the new benchmarking system, for example, Canadian Language Benchmarks demonstrate better assessment approaches than fill in the blank (also called "cloze") based approach. The report states the benefit of the new learner-centered approach where development is far better than authoritative based. The use of technology is a catalyst in language learning, and it has now been linked with leadership skills (Page 15).
Ans3. The writer successfully attempted to convey the ideas involved in language learning. The writer wanted to clearly differentiate between traditional or old leaning methods with a new one which is more robust and student friendly. Writer criticized the older methods citing an example which supports the assertions and managed to convince that there is a significant shift in language learning. The older methods were more authoritative, but there is a significant shift and with a great leap the learning-based approach is student friendly and gives more understanding to students or language learner. The writer attempts to bursts some myths such as of greater employability after language learning which is clearly not the case. Another one is of 10,000 hours to expertise any skill, the writer counter it with the idea of dedication and constant efforts. The writer also puts technological development as a basic platform on which this shift become possible, it is because of research and development and technological development there is a flow of knowledge and use of platforms like Moodle, or podcasts, empowered students. Writer successfully added the new leadership roles which can be linked with language learning, which also opens greater mobility of students in this globalized world. There is a clear shift from rote learning, and memorization to more practical learning.
Ans4. The report is effective in addressing the diverse themes and concepts in language learning, backed by facts and the writer cited the examples to approve the stated arguments. The writer recommends dedicated and unswerving efforts than the imprecise ideas of 10,000 hours by Malcolm Gladwell to attain fluency in a language. The report also asserts that now teachers are not pious which counter the belief of Robert Nisbet which considers the man of knowledge as sacred. The reason being technological advancements has diminished the availability of knowledge gaps in youth and an adult. It also proposed extinction of language labs which represented old methods of learning and in place, digital advancement such as podcasts, radio, etc have taken place. The writer advises student portfolios as a tool which is considered a better collaborative tool for student learning. There is also a shift from older assessment methods to a new one. The report also efficiently translates the shift from teacher-centric instruction to student-centered approaches that constitute the learning-centric approach. The writer also successfully touched the advantages of technology and digital environment and use of it in learning methods, now there is consideration of students as creators. Report effectively link language learning to leadership skills, and reconceptualization of learner-centered, collaborative and technology-driven approach.
Ans5. The report attempts to give contemporary ideas of language learning and use of technology which has given impetus to more collaborative based learning than traditional authoritative based teacher-centric approach. The writer attempts to give an account of traditional ideas of learning and focus on employability factor, then report submit the myths and tries to put a newer argument of more personalized, dedicated based approach than vague ideas. The report also hints sacredness of teacher which is now extinct, and technology played a major role in achieving the desired goal. The report also gives an account of student-centric approach, learner-centric approach, use of technology and links language learning with leadership skills. I think that the arguments stated by the writer can be observed in schools assessment system getting a revolutionary shift from percentage-based assessment systems, the teaching pedagogy has changed and there is the employment of digital tools such as of audio-visual in the classroom. Technology has revolutionized the way in which language learning is approached, and now students are empowered through tools available and there is a need for the introduction of innovation in the arena of language learning due to compaction of the world in which we are living in. Due to globalization and mobility of people, there is a demand to create leadership skills so that people can persist to make a world better place and convey ideas to people who are not opportune enough to take advantage of existing resources.
The human evolution is drastically changing over time, and the Homo Sapiens are marked as the last surviving species of the hominid species (Parmigiani et al., 2016). The evolutionary history of humans can be traced back to Africa, some six million years ago, transforming from the apes to the humans (Marder, 2018). The species called hominins have emigrated from Africa to the parts of Asia and then to Europe and then procured the rest of the world (Marder, 2018). The planet has witnessed the extinction of several species of humans and the world is left with the Homo sapiens to grow and evolve (Marder, 2018).
There are traditionally few fundamental traits of humans which separate humans from other species, they are: a) Social Engagement and Society, b) Cognitive Skills and Reasoning, c) Language and Speech d) Rules and Religion.
The first and foremost Social Engagement and Society is a trait which is not exclusively claimed by humans per-se, but the evolution of society with social structures and growth of villages, towns, cities or metropolis is a spectacular accomplishment which is exclusively claimed by humans to live a stable life and which gave reasons to develop and evolve. For example, the discovery of fire was a stimulus for humans in initial stages to stabilize and eat healthy food at a place, which later circumvented agricultural products and as consequence agriculture became one of the dominant occupations. Historically, men were hunter and gatherers, but because of the discovery of agricultural methods, humans settled and started rising societies which gave time to humans to develop other skills and learn new skills such as of creative arts like jewelry making, pottery, and creation of temporary houses. Humans now lived in groups or tribes rather than alone or with few around. This eventually created necessities for new tools such as plow, hammers, and domestication of animals was a revolution which amplified the resources for humans. Around this time Social Engagement started conferring its effect on human lives as it conceived another necessity which is of Language or Speech. Today, we also have societies, but it has taken a form of the nation which is formed by states, then districts, and it leads to smaller groups such as at local level, for example, residential societies. Nowadays, social media has also taken a form of the group which is virtual and this is also creating organizations or societies at virtual levels.
Humans differ from other animals or living beings in the sphere of Language and Speech evolution which is a clear demarcation in the animal kingdom, no other species developed this system, this complex as humans. There are more than hundred of Languages, and thousands of dialects. Social Engagement created this necessity to converse and convey ideas to other humans and this created fresh demand for the new language and hence this developed, otherwise, we would have only sounded to convey like other animals. This development or evolution was a giant leap which changed the lives of humans forever and pushed towards for "humanity", as now we were able to know and convey correct feelings and emotions to others. This also opened doors for language, literature, and science or technological development which pushed the human race forward, which created a major difference between humans and others. We now have newspapers, books, computers, all based on language. This shows how important language and conversations is for us, to live a complete social life. Now people learn more than one language to interact in the fast-paced and globalized modern world.
With the development of language both in speech and written form developed our understanding of nature and played a role of catalyst. It helped to develop our cognitive skills or reasoning. Scientific proofs suggest that our brain developed from monkey to what we are now, which is largest and most complex, contains millions of neurons which help us to sense, reason, and think or memorize which other species not able to do so in complex manners. The basic foundations for the development of reasoning is completed by language and settlement of humans, and now with free time, humans started to think over complex problems of lives, and started to ease the life by developing simple machines like pullies or iron-plough, or use of metals which again reduced human labour and increased the quality of life as a result a gateway for new technological development or scientific development started like of wheel, which gave impetus to transport system which ultimately resulted into more social engagement and exchange of ideas and this also led to the development of economy. Humans solved various problems even of nature, we successfully created models of functions of nature such as recent gravitation waves. We are going to outer-space, finding new planets and continually creating a better place to live in. Telephone, satellites, internet are advancements which like language are defining moments and certifies the evolution of the human race. The brain is a major contributor to the "humanness" which clearly make us more human than others.
Economy and more population led to the development of administrative system or rules or laws for people and need of a leader or king in the societies, and it resulted into the formation of Religious rules or texts which guided people how to live a good life and follow rules for the life. With religion, humans created rules for the society they were like contemporary constitutions. This led to the restructuring of society, and formal structures were created. Various societies started to form political structures for the management of lands and animals of the tribes, and this also led to the development of new relations with outer societies and migrations. This helped to bind society into one thread and created stronger linkages. Today, concepts like sovereignty, democracy, liberty, freedom, rule-of-law have created space to develop and give an opportunity to the human race for more development. The administration, technological development such as of transport system such as of airplanes, ships etc, has connected the whole world, unlike other animals or species we have now dominated the whole world, we have also created virtual tools like money, to systemize ourselves. This led to the development of each one of us. This is missing from other species.
The five factors have contributed to the development of the human race and helps us to differentiate from others, yet now there is an important which create substantial impact on humanity is the power of creativity, after social engagement and language all the development is assisted by only one bead in the whole thread which is creativity in all fields, such as in science, literature, philosophy, and others. This is one of the fountainheads of the human race which constantly erupted ideas for the development of humans. From Plato to Aristotle to Laski to Kant to Marx to Gramsci to Ardent to Shakespeare to C. Dickens to T.S. Eliot to A. Sen, all contributed for the development of humans, and this is the main reason why we are still humans, without which we are same as animals. For example, without emotions humans cannot define humanness, and that's why it is important for us to understand the power of our creativity. Other supplements which support stronger for humanness are will, power, pleasure, beliefs, and other soft skills, which also guides humans.
It is not that there are only fantasies which separate from others. There are ills, great ills, which roll-backs goods which are done by humans. The destruction due to greed, which is seen in the form of wars from ancient times to world-wars. The science has given us nuclear war tools, some bands such as colonialism, imperialism, apartheid, destruction of forests, pollution and all forms of exploitation. This also creates us, humans. It is not that we are free from all worsts. This shows our animal nature pulls back to animalness side of humans. The newest form of animalness if terrorism has created enormous destruction, pain, and grief. The attacks such as of 9/11, 26/11 or others are black spots in human diaries.
Humanness makes us Human, and love, creativity, ideas, thoughts, thinking, reasoning, science, technology, society are the tools to achieve this goal, yet there are various acts which create paradoxes in our ability to sustain the realm of humanness, but as a species of homo-sapiens we are still evolving and we need to adhere to the developmental strategies to remain "Human" for times to come.
Darmawan, S. L. 2017. The implementation of skimming technique towards studentsreading comprehension. Journal of English Education, 5(2), pp. 1-10.
Marder, L. 2018. What makes us human. Available at https//www.thoughtco.com/what-makes-us-human-4150529
Parmigiani, S., Pievani, T. and Tattersall, I. 2016. What made us human Biological and cultural evolution of Homo sapiens. Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 94, pp. 1-4. Available at https//www.researchgate.net/publication/302271260_
Yusuf, Q., Yusuf, Y. Q., Yusuf, B. and Nadya, A. 2017. Skimming and scanning techniques to assist EFL students in understanding English reading texts. Indonesian Research Journal in Education IRJE, 1(1), pp. 43-57.
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