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  • Subject Name : Management

Gender

Meaning of Gender

Gender is defined as one of the social constructs where it has been argued by some authors like Marchbank & Letherby (2014), that gender is a combination of both masculinities and femininities. The above picture describes a man along with his transgender wife who is standing in front of the home. Transgender people are having a certain gender identity which gets differed from their sex at the time of their birth. According to me through transgender, the meaning of gender can be portrayed as an incredibly diverse section of the community.

Some of the transgendered people identified themselves as male or female personalities. However, some of them identify themselves as non-binary, gender. As per the narrator, gender as a whole needs to be defined in such a way where both farness, as well as justice, is needed at the time of distributing benefits and responsibilities between persons irrespective of caste, creed, sex, and race. This will help in maintaining the balance between the sexes. It will also help in shifting the organizational cultures and also the process of thinking (West & Zimmerman, 1987). Hence as a whole, to properly define the concept of gender the process of knowledge creation and awareness if important.

Do Parents Feel Accountable for Their Children’s ’Accomplishment’ of Gender?

According to Kane (2006,p.156) children before the age of two gradually understands the meaning of active participants in the gendering process. Certain pieces of evidence highlight that with time, parents respond to the gender nonconformity among their preschool-aged children. Particularly for their sons, parents make efforts and make them understand the concept of masculinity along with certain hegemonic ideas. As per the comments of West & Zimmerman (1987,p.145), the individuals have been positioned differently in the context of gender and sexuality. However certain arguments and pieces of evidence made by Connell & Messerschmidt (2005,p.856), made the people think differently regarding categorizing the male and female child. For example, it can be stated that since the early childhood years, the treatment of the male and female child is different in the context of toys selection and also the decoration inside the children’s room.

After conducting, certain interviews, certain responses have been found which is highlighted as “I never wanted a girl who was a little princess, who was so fragile. . . . I want her to take on more masculine characteristics” (Kane, 2006). This indicates the positive attitude among the parent who feels relieved due to the boyish attitude of her daughter. However other instances show “I don’t want her just to color and play with dolls, I want her to be athletic (West & Zimmerman, 1987,p.150).” Hence it can be stated that both negative, as well as positive responses, came from observations and interviews where still now there exist typical mind-sets, who are not open in discussing the idea of gender equality (Kane, 2006,p.176).

The Argument on Sexuality Is an “Invention”

As being pointed out by Michael Foucault’s, The History of Sexuality through which the irony regarding Christianity ethics where the sex had been defined as one of the shameful aspects to be spoken about. The term “homosexuality” can be termed as one of the modern inventions and it had been first getting popular in Germany. It is generally defined as the fulfilment of same-sex desires. As being argued by Katz (2004), the concept of homosexuality is hidden from society and also less misunderstood. It can be inferred from his argument that the existence of emotions, relationships as well as desires among the individuals got shaped by the society where they live. Society itself provokes individuals to be ashamed of their sexuality and also did not allow them to speak about their sexuality in an open forum. However, on the other hand, this point has been argued by Weeks (1994), where the statement states “Sex is a most powerful instinct . . . there is no doubt that masculine jealousy, sexual modesty, female coyness, the mechanism of sexual attraction and courtship - all these forces and conditions made it necessary that even in the most primitive human aggregates there should exist powerful means of regulating, suppressing and directing this instinct” From the statement, it can be clear that sex can be defined as one of the basic biological mandates which needed to be open up rather than being repressed by some individuals in the society (Perrson, Newman, & Manolas, 2019,p.700).

Discussion of One Aspect or Experience of Gendered Life by Using Intersectionality Concept

Intersectionality is based on certain important concepts where both the relationship and the power knowledge between the social locations and the processes get linked. Things like racism, classism, ableism changes with time depending on the geographical aspects and settings. The power dynamics which hold under intersectionality replicates that certain class within the society gets highly privileged, whereas other portions have been left behind (Pini & Previte, 2013). In short, it can be stated that the concept of intersectionality is actually focused on transformation and also the development of the coalitions among different group members. In the context of the intersectional aspect, power can be defined as one of the relational concepts (Hankivsky, 2014).

An individual can be able to experience himself with both power and oppression in different contexts wherein one hand it can be said that the power over others or having the power with others. One experience can be shared in the context of the gendered life where for example a Laotian immigrant woman having a disability might experience safe and privileged for being White. However, it has been found that this particular lady due to her disability and since coming from the backward class, not generally accepted in society. In short, it has been argued by Hankivsky (2014), that intersectionality actually defines diversity and inequality and hence the complex inequities get addressed through this concept and also striving for the social justices.

References for Gender, Class and Sexuality in Contemporary Australia

Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the. Gender and Society, 19(6), 829-859.

Hankivsky, O. (2014). Intersectionality 101. Canada: SFU.

Kane, E. W. (2006). No way my boys are going to be like that!” Parents’ responses to children’s gender nonconformity. Gender & Society, 20(2), 149-176. doi:10.1177/0891243205284276

Katz, J. N. (2004). “Homosexual”and “Heterosexual”. Questioning the Terms. In M. S. Kimmel & R. F. Plante. Eds.) Sexualities: Identities, behaviours and society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Marchbank, J., & Letherby, G. (2014). Introduction to gender: Social science perspectives. UK: Routledge.

Perrson, A., Newman, C., & Manolas, P. (2019). Challenging perceptions of “Straight”: Heterosexual men who have sex with men and the cultural politics of sexual identity categories. Men and Masculinities, 22(4), 694 -715.

Pini, B., & Previte, J. (2013). Gender, class and sexuality in contemporary Australia: Representations of the Boganette. Australian Feminist Studies, 28(78), 348-363.

Weeks, J. (1994). The invention of sexuality. Sexualities. Critical Concepts in Sociology. UK: Routledge.

West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1(2), 125-151.

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