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  • Subject Name : Nutrition

Acculturation and Nutritional Health of Immigrants in Canada

Table of Contents



Case study analysis.

Pertinent issues.

Existence of pertinent health and eating issues.

Importance of proper nutrition.



Introduction to Global Perspectives Nutrition Report

This individual inquiry report will adhere to understand the diet problem of immigrants in Canada. The Impact of Nutrition Practices on Human Wellness is very evident and this present study will go on to reflect its significance. Dietary changes have been very prominent over the years in immigrants as well as the general Canadian population. This study will analyze the issues related to Canadian immigrants and why there had been vivid changes in their diet in reference to the case study.

Background of Global Perspectives Nutrition Report

Recent Canadian immigrants are considered to be healthier (Healthy Immigrant Effect) in comparison to the Canadian natives; their health has deteriorated somewhat due to changes in their diet. Policymakers have identified international migration as an important strategy for the nation’s development in economic terms and the country's population growth. Upon arrival, Canadian immigrants generally have fewer health complications than the native population. Nutrition transfer is one of the many factors contributing to the reduction of the impact of healthy migration. This conversion is believed to be mediated by the diet; the course accepts the dietary practices of Canadian immigrants. In context to research studies in the United States and Europe have subjected a positive link among food intake levels and risk factors for chronic disease. The effects of acculturation may be greater than changes in physical activity or diet and may augment the obesity’s risk associated with generations. It is imperative to recognize that immigrants can achieve perfection in the host culture by subjecting to their cultural roots. Thus, the impact of stimuli on health depends on how immigrants retain their old cultural identity as well as on the ways they tend to implement the contextual cultural practices in Canada (Sanou et al. 2014).

Case Study Analysis

The case study states that immigrating to Canada had made them unhealthy as compared to the time when they were in Southeast Asia. 15 years ago they immigrated to Canada before which in their home country, they purchased food at the markets, had homes that were well ventilated, bathed in cold water, drank fresh milk, walked extensively, and cooked meals at home. When they moved to Canada they were healthy people, lean and strong. After many years in Canada, they started to notice a change in their health. Their eating habits have also changed. The older family members still try to use the same ingredients in cooking and still try to cook mostly at home but the ingredients themselves are made differently. The younger family members are drinking pop, eating fried and sugary foods, and visiting fast-food restaurants several times a week. They drive cars now and take buses, therefore walk less. Heath issues that have appeared in their family which includes destructive arthritis, high cholesterol, flu, allergies, sleep apnea, weight gain/obesity, diabetes, and lactose intolerance. It can be comprehended that these issues are definitely in context to the lifestyle changes and poor diet.

Pertinent Issues

The major issue that can be comprehended from the case studies and writings by several authors is that when the immigrants arrive in Canada, they remain healthy. But in due course of time, they start to change their eating habits. It has been conferred that from the study by Sanou et al. (2014), that inadequate knowledge of nutrition subjected by the government of Canada and unfamiliarity in context to Canadian food and techniques of cooking were cited as reasons for the unwillingness of Indian and Chinese immigrant women to arrange western dishes. Living environment, food availability as well as lifestyle factors including urbanization and that of linguistic barriers hinders the women of Punjabi origin to maintain a dietary practice as per their tradition. While in Canada they face food preparation time lacking with traditional dietary ingredients as well as inadequacy in terms of equipment have been acting as a barrier in their traditional dietary-plan maintenance. The accessibility and thrift of the western diet have been identified as an important healthy eating barrier for the healthy foods preferring older Punjabi’s based at British Columbia.

As stated by Martínez (2013), food intake Modernization refers to the user of processed or ready to eat foods from local vendors. Citing an example, he states that, families unknowingly use ready to eat processed foods also during their “ethnic food” preparations. Dietary changes are often acquired among Latino immigrants as described. The Receipt-Diet study generally assumes that immigration to the U.S. is essential for changing the diet of Latin immigrants to negative diets. Negative diets include high-fat diets, low fiber, fresh vegetables as well as fruits intake. It also includes the regular intake of processed packed foods like snacks. Usage of processed food had been conferred extensively resulting in poor diet and unhealthy eating habits.

As stated in the study Vang et al. (2015), post-migration adaptation has subjected some attention in the direction of conducting a study in context to health and migration. Going further it gave to a rise in depletion of the immigrants’ health advantage over time. It is not due to pre-emigrational information’s lack but refers to rising health issues in Canada. As observed by the author a health status based convergence lies in between the immigrants as well as the native population. It directly refers to migrants’ health loss leading to the creation of worse scenarios in comparison to the natives.

As stated in the study of Okreglicka (2015), western-style diets, are characterized by a high concentration of fast and processed foods. It contains a high proportion of sugar, preserving agents and chemical salts, along with high amounts of saturated fats and unhealthy protein derived from red meat. All these contribute to metabolic diseases and eventually lead to obesity. Deadly metabolic diseases like insulin resistance leading to diabetes (T-2), dyslipidemia, high BP, and coronary heart diseases. It can also lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease even leading to cancer. WHO’s report presents data that about 1.3B adults are overweight, with 200M having diabetes (Type 2). The indigents as used in these food materials reduce the healthy nutrient values form the diet that contributes toward human kidney failure, stasis, or inflamed dysfunctional kidney hormone control. The unhealthy Western diet relates to chronic inflammation processes involved at developmental stages of atherosclerosis and initiates an induction of progressive diseases like osteoporosis. This article highlights the results of research as per dietary macronutrient’s effects on selected methods and types of fatty acids in the onset of the most common foodborne illness.

Existence of Pertinent Health and Eating Issues

Effects on health of exceptional consideration of modified carbohydrates

Long-term food intake with high glycemic load can lead to hyperglycemia as well as hyperinsulinemia leading to high concentrations of TG along with VLDL or lipid metabolism with low HDL levels, high blood pressure, high levels of plasma uric acid and high levels of resistance (Okreglicka, 2015).

Getting the right protein is good for health

Protein high levels (20%) increase tissue sensitivity to insulin to combat dyslipidemia and thus reducing heart’s risk, with the evolution of an effective strategy in fighting obesity, metabolic disorders, and hypertension.

The health effects associated with fat consumption depends on its composition amount

As in this 21st century, there has been a significant amount of increase in vegetable and salad oil consumption by about 13-41%, and by 130% respectively. Western diets often contain significantly more fatty acids (both saturated as well as the Trans) with the absence of the little amount of PUFA’s omega-3 in comparison to omega-6 fatty acids (Okreglicka, 2015).

Importance of Proper Nutrition

In developing countries, inadequate nutrition records 45percent of deaths amongst the children fewer than 5 years ago. Nutrition is all about the food’s supply as per the human being’s requirement and helps their cellular systems to operate and stay alive. As per human medicinal science, nutrition refers to the consuming and utilizing practices associated with food. With so much of sensitization towards health, immune system and nutrition people have shifted towards the ‘right’ diets. The requirements of nutrition change with different stages of life. It’s an established fact that globally each year, more than 6M children dies due to malnutrition infections resulting in the breakdown of the immune system. Thereby, it must be ensured that whatever food we are consuming has enough nutrition to assist our immune system intact as well as strong. Also, one must ensure that the extra demands placed on their bodies are taken care of (Astrup & O’Connor, 2018).

To meet the regular demands of the body, it is required to consume certain things on a daily basis. Proteins keep our immune system strong. Biologically valuable Dairy products as well as eggs are the source of protein. Try to add them to your daily nutrition. Vitamins like C, E, along with those of beta-carotene are the first defense line of the human body against free radicals. Also, antioxidants are vital. Antioxidants are the micronutrients that can also provide protection against free radicals. They prevent fats from getting oxidized and prevent spoilage. Moreover, it also prevents chain reactions through a counteracting oxygen combination mixed with other substances. And, Immuno nutritional elements contain some effective vitamins that support as well as stimulate human being’s immune system (Martínez, 2013).

Except these, there are some other foods as well that are needed like 4-5 liters of water (daily), KJ for energy (especially carbohydrates), essential fatty acids from foods like olive oil, fish, nuts, avocado and alike, fat-soluble as well as water-soluble vitamins, minerals like calcium, iron, along with zinc, phytochemicals derived from plants (they provide protection against heart diseases, diabetes, and cancers, arthritis,) and a varied diet inclusive of green leafy vegetables fresh fruits, whole grains, legumes, as well as lean meats.

Conclusion on Global Perspectives Nutrition Report

In conclusion, it can be stated that it is very important to maintain a healthy diet despite migrating to another nation. Home-cooked food with no processed meat or vegetables is a must to retain proper health. Having a balanced diet will decipher an individual to fewer health complications. This study was very much important to inquire as to why the health status of immigrants changes after coming to Canada. It had been comprehended from the above research that the effects of acculturation, unhealthy diet, lack of availability of ingredients are conceding factors.

References for Global Perspectives Nutrition Report

Astrup, C., & O’Connor, M. (2018). Fuel for Life: A Literature Review of Nutrition Education and Assessment Among Older Adults Living at Home. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 30(2), 61-69.

Martínez, A. D. (2013). Reconsidering acculturation in dietary change research among Latino immigrants: challenging the preconditions of US migration. Ethnicity & health, 18(2), 115-135.

Okreglicka, K. (2015). Health effects of changes in the structure of dietary macronutrients intake in western societies. Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny, 66(2).

Sanou, D., O’Reilly, E., Ngnie-Teta, I., Batal, M., Mondain, N., Andrew, C., ... & Bourgeault, I. L. (2014). Acculturation and nutritional health of immigrants in Canada: a scoping review. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 16(1), 24-34.

Vang, Z., Sigouin, J., Flenon, A., & Gagnon, A. (2015). The healthy immigrant effect in Canada: A systematic review. Population Change and Lifecourse Strategic Knowledge Cluster Discussion Paper Series/Un Réseau stratégique de connaissances Changements de population et parcours de vie Document de travail, 3(1), 4.

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