• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : GMBA6007
  • University : University of Newcastle
  • Subject Name : Management

What Is the Influence of Culture on Negotiation Styles and Conflicts Management?

Introduction

The main purpose of the assignment is to discuss the influence of culture on negotiation styles and conflicts management. It is common and imperative to see how culture can affect the negotiation styles and also be one of the main factors, which can influence due to conflict management. The cultural traits, along with the set value orientations, having orient to resolve the culturally typical conflict resolution all can be a common factor to influence and bring stability (Posthuma, 2016). The main approach to negation can be of the constructivist approach and how it can influence the cultural influence that can bring perpetual negotiators’ judgments along with withholding decisions.

As the culture can be predominant factors that can influence the negotiators, similarly the role of the mediators can also be a trend to infringe and even bring a series of kinds of differences that can attract both inline to the cultures, and also holding key factors. It is even thought that cultures can even bring differences during the stages of the conflict resolution and it would hold as a contrasting to the cultural traditions which can be handled with the help of the individuals negotiate conflict as compared. For example, the cultural differences have seen that the Anglo American have higher competitive negotiator styles in comparison to the Confucian East Asian who has a lenient strategy. Negotiation is noted to be a very sensitive issue and the role of the cultural people is to negotiate through their styles, influences, and even setting it apart from the achievement that can align it with the goals (Oetzel, 2018).

Theoretical Background

Culture and Negotiation/conflicts; Harmony

Conflict avoidance is one of the common approaches which have been extensively adopted by the group like East Asia and their main target is of the Confucian notion of harmony which has also channelized into the tendency. Due to the classical Confucian doctrines, there is no scope of the encouragement that can further influence and even handle conflict avoidance within the Confucian teachings (Oetzel, 2018). Subsequently, the problem which can be achieved is to influence a rapid Confucian notion of harmony which can even handle the scope of the personal engagements and the personal negotiation styles. Oaten the problem while handling the harmony as conflict avoidance is also a way it can be checked as the classical Confucianism, but it would not be

a key secured a place for the cultural collectivism. Through the way, one can form the notion of harmony, it is also important to hold the harmony dualistic model that can further be positing the instrumental and also be channelized into the key motive ways of having a harmony-seeking behavior. Further, there can also be an imperative method, that can handle the care, harmony ad have the key perspective that can mound the materialistic end, and it would be channelized into the value perspective, Due to the harmony it is also viewed as one own right. Conflict avoidance is also important to note how there can be a key instrumental motive. Further, there can also be two motives, which would be aligned with the types of harmony-seeking behaviors such as peace resolution, respecting the other people’s culture, negotiation through the cultural differences, and even listening to the other parties, to bring the best and constructive solution (Lin, 2014).

Confrontation and Regulation Models; Negotiation Styles

Confrontation is known to be an aggressive approach which is also represented as a strategy used during wartime. The confrontation is defined as how one can confront others and can accuse the other with the desired styles (Kozan, 2017). Any way to handle the confrontation can be done with the help of approaching the matter accurately, to further understand the resolution, bring an edge to the resolution, and after convert it into a constructive style. The regulation models is defined as following the rules, the policies, and abide by the common negotiation styles. This type of negotiation style is often used in the war zones times, such as the war between India and Pakistan, which would lead to consisting of an army and ceasing to happen with the set rules of the regulation model. Both the strategy of the continuation and the regulation works tether and bring a resolution to it.

Conflict Resolution Styles

The conflict resolution styles which have been stronger predictive mechanism can be the direct resolution on the face, to have the better strategy to provide the constructive face concern and even bring a better resolution to the facework strategies. Overall, the face, face concern and the face work, such as showing the empathic face expression, to have the constructive negotiation styles, by showing a decent behavior and even bringing in a resulting, can help to overcome the problem. Further, the main work is to understand how the interplay, the role of the behavior, and also defining a face concern can bring an effective resolution to the problem (Kern, 2012).

Further, the problem of the conflicts and the negotiation can be approached with social distance, awareness, and even understanding cultural empathy. For example, when negotiating with the Japanese, it is best to read, observe, and understand their culture and bring negotiation skills. Fitter, it would be important to understand, access, and read the culture styles such as bending and bowing down and talking less, having a strict formal code of conduct, and even bring a better negotiation style, that can help in bringing a close resolution (Brett, 2019).

With the close resolution approaches and understanding the cultural differences, it can help to bring a note to the overall result ion that can bring in a better scope of the effectiveness. It would be helpful to note as to how there can be a biter steps to bring resolution and negotiate with the other parties.

Reflective Analysis

As a first live session, I have seen how the Japanese would describe the United States negotiators as an unwillingness and fiercely independent to negotiate. The role of the Japanese and the Americans are not purely governing due to the racial orientation and bringing a quick resolution or a control. The Japanese are less volatile, are more silent and their work speaks louder then there voice. The Japanese are known as one of the dynamic people who can bring an effective resolution and can help to note the racial and the culturally homogenous. Further, the key characteristics of bringing harmony are through the cultural approach to negotiate and can bring in a more generalization. It is also important to hold general content to the rules, ordinance, and even help in ascertaining the time overall individual preferences along with an understanding of the interpersonal dynamics and mood (Brett, 2019).

It is important to understand how the generalization can happen with the set bound culture and the unique approaches, which can help to understand the ways to negotiate. Overall there can be radical moves and how it can present with the correct approaches is dependent on the set governing behavior and how it would be implicated with time. The main problem of the negotiation is the attitude, behavior, and understanding of each other cultural differences. Even though both the Japanese and the American are opposite of each other, still they would hold opposite vies to resolve, have the concrete steps to negotiate, and even overcome the differences.

The second live session was observed during the confrontation and the relation tiles of the war zones areas and even in the game of chess. The two players from the different zones have to understand what the other player stagey is and how to approach the matter. The first rule would be to win and the other rule would be how to dominate and lead. This would help to control the situation and even play the game fairly (Brett, 2019). The main purpose of the game is to confront and regulate. By giving the checkmates, each of the players can influence the other with the best of the ability and with the best move. For example, how to reach the fastest game first and confront the other player and then the other player, tries to negotiate with the best available resources and the moves. It would help to bring a win-loss negotiation approach and even understanding the other negotiation style of the collaboration and the confrontation, it can help to accommodate, adjust, and finding out a middle way.

By understanding how the rules change with the games and the workings, can help to bring better resolution between the two parties and it would help to understand the fair strategies. Through the corrective steps, approaches, and having better-skilled strategies, it can help to bring a better command over the diction and the ability to think alike.

Critical Discussion

Brett (2019) mentioned how the negotiation skills can be due to the time-related orientation and it can be also monochromic and polychromic. While the Monochromic it is important to follow a linear, sequential, and involve focusing on one thing at a time. Further, as the time orients with the specific country, the cultural attributes and the time generation plays a vital role to influence and even bring harmony. Further, it is better to have the key command over the Polychromic orientations which can help provide an intervening similar culture. On the contrary, Chin (2015) The main influence of the polychromic cultures which would focus on flexible times, negotiate with the mind, body, and even the best-desired styles. It would be helpful to think and align with how there can be explicit communication, the preference, better-styled roles, and potential for the negation. Further, it is important to have future based approaches and how it can help in the negotiators that can work inline to the past, future, and future scope of the change.

Ren (2019) has presented the other approach is how the space orient within the cultures. It can be distanced as to how there can be an orientation that can bring a unique set up and better-skilled approaches that could resolve through the effective steps. With the better skilled, the behavior such as the aggressive, culture, and the timely intervention can help to bring a better, divisions and it would also help to collaborate with the better-skilled provision. The use of the personal distance includes the style of the comfort or lack of comfort and further can also be related to the expectations and how it would be united with the place.

Through nonverbal communication, the main goal is to collaborate and bring in the uniformity with the intercultural studies. Oetzel (2018) has mentioned the main role of the Americans is to bring a moderate style, to bring in the better command and even result in the better-developed relations. Such as how the Mexican would be keen to huge, would bring in the better styled trusting relationship, and even help to relate with the communication that can provide a quick resolution and the support. The body and the behavior can help to bring it in better command and can work and can further help to negotiate. Overall, with the relationship development and bringing in the command, control and the relationship with adequate body behavior can help to progress and have control.

Posthuma (2016) has mentioned how their can be most prominent factor is the power distance and how it can help to research over with the better style dimensions and even bring command with the national cultures. It can help in bringing unequal power distances and also bring a higher degree of deference along with holding the key acceptance. Further, it is important to have fair cultures and also bring a command over the high power distance and even bring versatility with better command. It can be due to the social status, gender, race, age, and even help to bring in the command with a fair set of people. For example, the low power culture can help to bring in the command and better veracity.

Managerial Implications

During week 6, the main issues as highlighted were the command over the culture and communication and as observed, how each of the cultures plays a vital role while communicating and presenting their points. For example, when focused on the Chinese culture, the Chinese people are observed to be patient and even quite quick, in caparison to the European culture, which is observed to be patient, observant, and much focused. Each of the cultures can hold a better command and can bring transparency in maintaining the relationship and control over the relationship (Posthuma, 2016).

In week 7 the focus was on the culture and leadership, which was the way it can help to command, control, and negotiate. Further, the culture can play a vital role to influence the leader and how it can bring in the versatility of the relationship. A better understanding is of the cultural attributes and how one can bring in the negotiation styles such as to be dominant, versatile, and even approach the matter with the best of competence, social status, and the commanding style. It can help to deliver and bring in better control over the relations (Kozan, 2017).

During the week 8, the main focus was on the culture and negotiations, that how each of the cultures plays a vital role during negotiation, for example, Anglo American would be seen as a commanding style, while the East Asian people would be observed to be negotiating and dealing with rich other empathically. It would help to influence the core culture and even bringing better versatility. During the intervention, often the role can be how to bring in the command through the course of interaction and how to channelize the forces into the one set goals. The role of the projected outcomes and the better roles that can be set would be based on the culture, such as the Americans are viewed to be alterative, dictating, while Indians and the Chinese are viewed to be hardworking and working progressively. Each of the cultures can form the collaboration, acceptance, and even the correct negotiation styles, which can bring in the versatility. It would help to bring in the command and the better-styled negotiation (Ren, 2019).

Lastly, in week 9, it was the culture and ethics which was imperative as to how there can be a balance to the cultural thoughts with ethical wellbeing. Such as if the ethics of Bangladesh and Pakistan is to bring in more productivity and the revenue, and then they would focus on the low ethics such as employing women and the child and dong extensive labor beyond the hours. It would only bring in more productivity, but it would lead to compromised ethics (Lin, 2017). Overall, it can be helpful to have the set command and the transparency, that can help to provide an overall view. Each of the cultures has set rules and the transparency to follow, it is important to hold command and even bring a quick resolution to the approaches and the styles. It would help to bring in the better command.

Conclusion

To conclude, the main approach to negation can be of the constructivist approach and how it can influence the cultural influence that can bring perpetual negotiators’ judgments along with withholding decisions. As the culture can be predominant factors that can influence the negotiators, similarly the role of the mediators can also be a trend to infringe and even bring a series of kinds of differences that can attract both inline to the cultures, and also holding key factors. It is even thought that cultures can even bring differences during the stages of the conflict resolution and it would hold as a contrasting to the cultural traditions which can be handled with the help of the individuals negotiate conflict as compared.

References

Brett, J. M., & Mitchell, T. (2019). Searching for trustworthiness: culture, trust, and negotiating new business relationships. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Chin, T., & Liu, R. H. (2015). Understanding labor conflicts in Chinese manufacturing: a YinYang harmony perspective. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Doucet, L., Jehn, K. A., Weldon, E., Chen, X., & Wang, Z. (2019). Cross‐cultural differences in conflict management. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Kern, M. C., Lee, S., Aytug, Z. G., & Brett, J. M. (2012). Bridging social distance in inter‐cultural negotiation:o and bi‐cultural negotiator. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Kozan, M. K. (2017). Culture and conflict management: A theoretical framework. International Journal of Conflict Management, 8(4).

Lin, C. (2015). Studying Chinese culture and conflict: A research agenda. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Oetzel, J., Garcia, A. J., & Ting‐Toomey, S. (2018). An analysis of the relationships between face concerns and facework behaviors in perceived conflict situations. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Posthuma, R. A., White, G. O., Dworkin, J. B., Yánez, O., & Swift, M. S. (2016). Conflict resolution styles between co‐workers in US and Mexican cultures. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Ren, H., & Gray, B. (2019). Repairing relationship conflict: How violation types and culture influence the effectiveness of restoration rituals. Academy of management review, 34(1), 105126.

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