Sex, Gender And Identity - Answer 3

Gender inequality defines the unequal status of men and women in society. Inequality in gender or any kind of discrimination in society related to gender or sex affects the living of an individual and building its life experience. The differences arise from differentiation and distinctions based on biology, cultural norms, and psychology. Some of the distinctions are grounded whereas the other grounds are socially constructed. Inequality in gender has been in experience differently in different nations in different cultures across the world. every individual in the planet have their rights and duties since birth, therefore each person has the power to exercise those rights and duties, and the people facing such issues of discrimination and gender distinctions are allowed to raise voice against the same (Pandavic, Ely, & Reid, 2020). The unequal status of males and females in society defines the morale and culture of society. They depict the mentality and background of the people, there are many states across the world where such distinctions take place in between the gender. People are discriminated against by their society based on different sex and gender. Natural differences occur between the gender based on the terms of biological and factors related to anatomic reasons, mainly it differs based on the reproductive roles (Haung, Gates, Sinatra, & Barbari, 2020).

Gender has many implications on the lives of the people, but the most important and consequential the main act of this is that it acts based on inequality between people of society. It even started with the color differentiation as blue is for boys and for girls the color is pink. Gender inequality in the modern world is on an ordinary principle of the hierarchy between males and females, and if seen it is based on power and status. A gender hierarchy that gives rights to the men over women of the family and society has survived the economic and social reorganization that has accompanied the transition of countries to countries (Ridgeway, 2011). Since birth males and females are treated and raised differently in a different environment, since history males have been considered dominant over the females, and both the sections are led on the different ways due to the influence of the gender role stereotypes and gender role expectations before anyone can choose their ways and paths for further life.

Sex, Gender And Identity - Answer 4

Intersectionality is a theory-based framework for understanding the aspects of a person's social and political identities, gender, race, sexuality, ability, height, and it might combine to create unique modes of discrimination. The complexity, cumulative measures, and how the effects of the multiple forms of discriminations as based on the racism, classism, and sexism together combine and overlap also intersect especially in the experiences margined in the groups or the individual is known as intersectionality (Collins, & Bilge, 2020). The term intersectionality was coined by the black feminist scholar Kimberle Williams Crenshaw in 1989. The theory began from the exploration of the oppression of women based on her color with the society and also included many other different aspects of an identification of the society (Roland, 2018). The historical exclusion of the women who were in the black from the movement of feminists and feminism such as Anna Julia Cooper has been challenging the historical exclusion. An idea of the early feminism movement which was led by the whites of the society also the whites who started the movement were middle-class women, suggested that a woman falls under the category of the homogeneous who shares a similar life experience.

The theory of intersectionality is taken to be illuminated dynamics that are often found to be overlooked by the theory and movement of feminism. Such movement helps the females of the society to understand and gather details about how gender, sex, race, caste, class join together to build the determination of the destiny for females of the society. Since the term has been in light the historical and theoretical link for the concept of simultaneity has been in advance since 1970 through the members of the Combahee River Collective in Boston, Massachusetts. Thus, the women of the Combahee River Collectively advanced in understanding the movement which is to challenge the males of the society of African-Americans which has the origin from the Black and male-centered social movement and of the white, middle-class feminists which are considered to the heterosexual. The benefits of such movements are to bring change in the mentality of the people and thinking towards the crime of gender discrimination and intersectionality. Division based on race, color, caste, creed, sex has been in practice since ages therefore, in the modern era it is the major responsibility of every individual to take things and such movements as an important concern for society. This shall not only bring equality but also let the females of society exercise their rights and duties.

References for Sex, Gender And Identity

Collins, P. H., & Bilge, S., 2020. Intersectionality. 

Haung, J., Gates, A., Sinatra, R., & Barbari, A. L., 2020. Historical Comparison of gender inequality scientific careers across countries and disciplines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 177 (9) pp: 4609-4616. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1914221117

Pandavic, I., Ely, R. J., & Reid, E. M., 2020. Explaining the Persistence of Gender Inequality: The work-family Narrative as a Social Defense against the 24/7 Work Culture. Administrative Science Quarterly, SAGE JOURNALS. 65 (1) pp: 61-111. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001839219832310

Ridgeway, C. L., 2011. Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World. 

Roland, E., 2018. Understanding Intersectionality to Promote Social Justice in Education Leadership: Review of JCEL Cases. Intersections Critical Issues in Education. 2 (1). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/intersections/vol2/iss1/3

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