Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Engineering

1. Introduction to Aircraft Manufacturing Analysis

1.1. Background

Aircraft manufacturing industry is one of the oldest industries which dates to 1903 when Wright brothers did a detailed research to develop an excellent and innovative mode of transport. Since then, lot of innovative and new technologies has been developed to manufacture aircrafts of different capacities and styles. The fabrication and assembly are the two main processes employed in any aircraft manufacturing industry. Various raw material are utilized and fabricated into detailed parts which are later assembled based on structural configurations. Basically, detailed parts are assembled to make simple panels which are later combined to make super panels and greater level assemblies to produce components like wings, fuselage and finally the aircraft. Nowadays, efficient production of aircrafts by changing the integral design and using innovative techniques has been the focus (Branko sarh, 2009).

The aircraft manufacturing industry is striving hard to include various sustainability techniques in order to overcome the pollution caused during the production phase of an aircraft. One of the strategies is that the usage of recycled raw materials during the production phase which are compatible with the environment derived from renewable sources and produced by national suppliers. The other solution is to improve the manufacturing process in order to producer less scraps and residues (Santos,2016). The usage of biopolymers composites reinforced with natural fibers to produce different panels of an aircraft was found to be the promising solution to reduce the pollution. Apart from this, improving engine performance and combustion efficiency has reduced green house gas emission and fuel consumption. The usage of biofuel in place of aviation fuel has in fact reduced the pollution to greater extent. Also, advanced composite materials and alloys has been introduced in order to reduce the overall weight of the aircraft and to achieve green aviation. (Zuo-Ming Lin, 2013).

1.2 Aim

The main aim is to perform the triple bottom analysis of the sector 2304, aircraft manufacturing of the Australian economy and to compare it with triple bottom line analysis of Australian household.

2. Methods and Data

2.1 Input Output Analysis Data and Model:

The input output analysis is useful for economic analysis of a country or region. They can be used as the powerful tool to provide valuable information about industrial structure of economy. The data used in this paper is extracted from Australian Bureau of statistics (ABS) 2017 Australian national accounts. 114 different sectors have been considered within the Australian economy and 26 broad sectors were also considered for rest of world. (ROW). Mainly, three parameters such as Greenhouse gas emissions, wages and salaries and the number of persons employed were considered to determine the environmental input- output analysis.

As a whole, input output analysis table helps to determine environment and economic input output framework, analysis of composition of exports and foreign value-added levels in national exports. (Paul, 2013).

2.2 Calculations using Input- output table:

  • Initially, it is essential to verify whether there is equilibrium between total supply and total demand for each sector. The total input and total output for each sector is calculated by adding the rows of input- output table.
  • Secondly, Fj or the Direct intensity matrix is calculated for all the three extensions like Greenhouse gas emissions, persons employed and wages and salaries. The formula used to calculate Direct intensity matrix (DIM) is
  • Leontief Inverse Matrix (L) is determined using the formula

After calculating Direct intensity multipliers and Leontief Inverse matrix, Total intensity matrix can be calculated by fj and L.

Finally, the various footprints can be calculated by multiplying Total intensity matrix with the final demand of each vector.

References for Aircraft Manufacturing Analysis

Chen, G., Wiedmann, T., Hadjikakou, M. and Rowley, H. (2016) City Carbon Footprint Networks. Energies, 9(8), 602. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en9080602

Hoekstra, A. Y. and Wiedmann, T. O. (2014) Humanity’s unsustainable environmental footprint. Science, 344(6188), 1114-1117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1248365

Wiedmann, T. O., Schandl, H., Lenzen, M., Moran, D., Suh, S., West, J. and Kanemoto, K. (2015) The material footprint of nations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(20), 6271-6276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1220362110

Wolfram, P., Wiedmann, T. and Diesendorf, M. (2016) Carbon footprint scenarios for renewable electricity in Australia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 124, 236-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.080

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