Skin, glands, nails, hair and nerves constitute the Integumentary System. The system includes four types of glands and those are sebaceous gland, sudoriferous glands, mammary glands and ceruminous glands. This system helps in protecting the body form the outside world through acting as a barrier between both. It also helps in retaining the body fluids, eliminating the waste products, regulating the temperature or the body along with protecting against diseases. This part of the work will try to focus on the anatomy and functions of the skin along with evaluating histology of the skin and the effects of the 3rd degree burns (Baxter, R. M., Dai, T., Kimball, J., Wang, E., Hamblin, M. R., Wiesmann, W. P., ... & Baker, S. M. (2013). Electrolyte imbalance and fluid retention of the body is highly related with the skin impacts that would also be a part of this work along with understanding the concept of how the skins helps in regulating the temperature of the body. The case study of fireman Jiemba Mbotunamba would be taken into consideration for having a better understanding who has encountered severe 3rd degree buns that has affected 20% of his body parts including his face, hands and neck. Although he is medically stable yet facing some serious complications with his core body temperature and frequent changes in the cardiac function.
Largest organ of the human body is the skin and its appendages like the hairs, nails and certain glands. About 15% of the weight of the adult is comprise of the skin and it weigh about six pounds. The thinnest part among the body skin is that of the eyelids which is about <0.1mm while soles of the feet and the palms of the hands are the thickest parts of the body skin which is about 1.5mm. Thickness, colour and texture of the skins vary in different parts of the body. Basically, there are two types of skins, one is thin and hairy while the other one is thick and hairless (Schaefer, T. J., & Tannan, S. C. (2019). The fist type of skin is found all over the body while the second skin type is found in areas of the body that encounter heavy friction like the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands. Technical name of skin is the cutaneous membrane and its primary role is to protect the body and the organs from various physical damages like abrasion, biological damage like that of microbial infection and chemical damage lie that for detergents, etc. Figure 1 shows various layers of the skin.
Figure 1. Cross section through all layers of the skin
Skin consists of three layers and those are,
Buns damages skin layers and if the burn injury gets deeper, it might also damage the fat, tissues, muscles and even bone. Burns can be causes by many reasons and accordingly the treatment types of these burns are designed. Damage of the skin occurs based on the depth of the injury and there are three main types or levels of skin injury. Figure 2. represents types and degrees of burn.
Figure 2. Types and degrees of burn
Depth of the skin damage due to burn represents the what kind and level of symptoms it will show. Ideally intense burn is highly susceptible to microbial infection (Schaefer, T. J., & Tannan, S. C. (2019). It is highly important that the third-degree burn, and more should be kept under observation as the protective layer had been damaged and this makes the inner skin layer of the body exposed to infection. Based on the depth of the burn injury, the burns are categorized into,
Homeostasis is maintaining the pH, temperature, heart rate, fluid level, blood pressure and blood sugar level of the body. It is a balancing act of the body where body try to accommodate or adjust the outer impact to maintain a balance. In this case study of the fireman Jiemba Mbotunamba who has encountered severe 3rd degree buns that has affected 20% of his body parts, his body homeostasis capability got affected. His buns have affected his body at the cellular level thereby disrupting the self-repair and self-regulating ability of the skin and the Integumentary System. Third degree bun patients are often get affected by dehydration and infection wherein the blood capillaries and the vessels get highly effected.
In third degree burn, entire thickness of the skins gets affected thereby the barrier against the loss of water gets affected and does not exists anymore. This allows the fluid to get slip by causing severe dehydration which if not addressed immediately would lead to hypovolemic shock (Baxter, R. M., Dai, T., Kimball, J., Wang, E., Hamblin, M. R., Wiesmann, W. P., ... &
Baker, S. M. (2013). Buns damages skin layers and if the burn injury gets deeper, it might also damage the fat, tissues, muscles and even bone. Burns can be causes by many reasons and accordingly the treatment types of these burns are designed. It is highly important that the third-degree burn, and more should be kept under observation as the protective layer had been damaged and this makes the inner skin layer of the body exposed to infection.
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