Nursing can be defined as an autonomous and combined approach of professionals as well as different communities and family members, working side by side with healthcare professionals (Su, 2020). The profession of nursing is mainly aimed at promoting the overall health of the individuals, preventing various illnesses, and enabling healthcare facilities to the people needing the same. It also makes up for providing individuals with a safe and secure environment and helping them with their healthcare rights and health policies as well. Nurses work from the lowest level in the hierarchy to the highest level, making sure all of the functions of the healthcare system are fulfilled to its maximum capacity and without any restriction in delivery of healthcare facilities (Grant, 2019). Nurses can play a key role in promoting educational activities and facilitating managerial activities as well.
Nurses play a pivotal role in promoting the nursing profession as well as nursing practices. They not only help in promoting educational activities but can also help in defining the role of the nursing profession beyond its restricted bounds. They have been resourceful in engaging in the general scope of the nursing practice while promoting the leadership role of their duties (Skagerström, 2017). They also play a vital role in carrying out healthcare teaching activities and constantly being engaged in enhancing and improving the standards of the nursing profession. They also help with promoting training and healthcare auxiliaries and being involved in conducting the research process to introduce new healthcare techniques to be used for human welfare (Hong, 2016).
Nursing theories can be deemed as an organized body of knowledge and concepts that can help in defining the term as well as the profession of nursing through a holistic approach. These theories are also very useful in providing an insight into the unique disciplines that make up for an integral part of the nursing profession (Younas, 2019). These concepts and disciples are very vital in guiding the nursing practices to be executed within their full capacity and without any limitations. Nursing theories are generally based on the knowledge on which nursing care is delivered to individuals.
Nursing theories are also based on four major components that make up for a nursing metaparadigm. This metaparadigm defines the four elements like a person, environment, health, and nursing (Kim, 2020). A person refers to the patient or the client that needs medical healthcare support. The environment can be made up of both intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. It can also include negative and positive impacts on the patient's health. Other factors such as friends, families, and a person's social environment can also have a large impact on the well-being of an individual. Health can be described in terms of the experience the client or the patient, that they might go through while receiving care from the healthcare professionals. Nursing can be defined as the bond that combines all of the other three elements. These theories also help in improving the care that is provided to the patient.
Nursing theories can be differentiated into three main broad classifications:
Grand theories are generally based on abstract and can be quite broadly defined in a spectrum (Börzel, 2019). Middle-range theories however have a more limited scope when it comes to defining abstract situations. Practice-level theories are, however, situation-based and are related to a specific population group (Nelson, 2019). These theories help fetch the best possible healthcare outcomes in the patients. in comparison to their other counterparts, these theories can have a direct impact on the decision-making process in the nursing profession. The concept of middle-aged theories and grand theories can be closely related to the practice level theories of nursing.
As a nurse, we are often subjected to dynamic and compelling situations where there is a dire need for prompt action taking and delivering care to the patient. Being specific to a given situation practice level nursing theories can help in the smooth facilitation of nursing care to the patients. Having a clear picture of the situation will help the nurse in getting connected to the patient on a more personal level. With the patient confiding in a nurse and having good faith in her healthcare provided, the competence of the nurse on a professional level can also enhance largely.
Nursing competency can be met by the means of being engaged constantly in educational and promotional activities. One should be open to learning new tools and techniques and should be open to new challenges as well (Spence, 2019). As per the new code of conduct and guidelines, the nurse needs to maintain the fundamental values as well as principles. Competency can also be attained by allowing equal autonomy to the patient in the treatment offered to them. This is also crucial to provide a yardstick for evaluating the conduct of the patients on a deeper level. The professionalism in the conduct can also be attained with the help of articulating values and principles and trying to build a strong trust with the patients for that (Nursing council of New Zealand, 2020).
Professional relations can be pondered upon as a therapeutic one that is based on ensuring the promotion of care and the needs of the clients or the patients. For attaining higher levels of professionalism, the nurses should be well aware of their roles and responsibilities and their relationship with their respective clients as well (Sinclair, 2016). Nurses also posses a role having a greater impact on the overall healthcare system and other professionals of the multidisciplinary team. They can also play a key role in maintaining the power balance and dynamics of the system as a whole. The professional relationship between the nurses and the patients can be fruitful in building strong foundational grounds for managing overall health care providers to the patient. The individual might be unaware of the importance of these clinical practices. However, nurses can play a vital role in ensuring the appropriate use of professional practice while managing care for their clients (Nursing council of New Zealand, 2020). They can also assist the clients by helping them, in having a better and a clear picture of professionalism in the nursing practices (Walker, 2016). There is a professional onus on the shoulder of nurses at all times, to make sure that the professional relationship is also based on care plans and goals that are the foundational approach for therapeutic intent and positive healthcare outcomes for the patients.
Being the most integral part of the healthcare model, the role of nurses is irreplaceable in terms of promoting the health standards of the patients. The clinical role of nurses can however range from managing direct care of the patient, case management, and so on, to the part of ensuring smooth conduction of nursing practice standards, quality of the treatment, and managing care in complex and challenging medical situations. The nursing profession can be found to be made up of multiple facets and elements that help in defining it as a sound profession. It is mainly aimed at protecting, promoting, and improving the health of all individuals of all ages. The Code of conduct is formulated to give the nursing practices a directional approach and a schematic manner, ensuring the delivery of healthcare services in a true and holistic aspect. Nurses can be observed to be a crucial part of every community, rendering care right from the start of life till the end of it.
Börzel, T. A., & Risse, T. (2019). Grand theories of integration and the challenges of comparative regionalism. Journal of European Public Policy, 26(8), 1231-1252. DOI https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1622589
Grant, S. M., & Johnson, B. H. (2019). Advancing the Practice of Patient-and Family-Centered Care: The Central Role of Nursing Leadership. Nurse Leader, 17(4), 325-330. DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mnl.2019.05.009
Hong, M. H., & Park, J. Y. (2016). Nurses' perception of accreditation, awareness, and performance of infection control in an accredited healthcare system. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 22(2), 167-177. DOI https://doi.org/10.11111/jkana.2016.22.2.167
Kim, Y., Lee, H., & Ryu, G. W. (2020). Theoretical evaluation of Cox's interaction model of client health behavior for health promotion in adult women. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 26(2), 120-130. DOI https://doi.org/10.4069/kjwhn.2020.06.13
Nelson, L. E., McMahon, J. M., Leblanc, N. M., Braksmajer, A., Crean, H. F., Smith, K., & Xue, Y. (2019). Advancing the case for nurse practitioner‐based models to accelerate the scale‐up of HIV pre‐exposure prophylaxis. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 28(1-2), 351-361. DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14675
Nursing council of New Zealand, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.nursingcouncil.org.nz/Public/Nursing/Code_of_Conduct/NCNZ/nursing-section/Code_of_Conduct.aspx
Sinclair, J., Papps, E., & Marshall, B. (2016). Nursing students' experiences of ethical issues in clinical practice: A New Zealand study. Nurse Education in Practice, 17, 1-7. DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2016.01.005
Skagerström, J., Ericsson, C., Nilsen, P., Ekstedt, M., & Schildmeijer, K. (2017). Patient involvement for improved patient safety: A qualitative study of nurses’ perceptions and experiences. Nursing Open, 4(4), 230-239. DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.89
Spence, D., Zambas, S., Mannix, J., Jackson, D., & Neville, S. (2019). Challenges to the provision of clinical education in nursing. Contemporary Nurse, 55(4-5), 458-467. DOI https://doi.org/10.1080/10376178.2019.1606722
Su, J. J., Masika, G. M., Paguio, J. T., & Redding, S. R. (2020). Defining compassionate nursing care. Nursing Ethics, 27(2), 480-493. DOI https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0969733019851546
Walker, L., & Clendon, J. (2018). Early nurse attrition in New Zealand and associated policy implications. International Nursing Review, 65(1), 33-40. DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12411
Younas, A., & Quennell, S. (2019). The usefulness of nursing theory‐guided practice: an integrative review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 33(3), 540-555. DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12670
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