Ottawa charter for health promotion program was introduced in 1986 that aims at enabling people to look over, control and improve their health. It brought about the beginning of change on the ways healthcare professionals educate and empower individuals and populations. Smoking is one of the major threats to public health and is the underlying cause of many chronic disorders. The mass needs to be empowered about the cessation of smoking which is done by health promotion programme. The aim of the essay is to promote the smoking cessation by decreasing the rate of smoking by 5 in the adult women of Monash. It is the nurses role to empower the Monash women by the concepts of health literacy, health education and health promotion. The topics covered are the various Ottawa charter action plans in rationale to the nurses role in promoting the smoking cessation and introducing the benefits of quitting it.
The Ottawa charter key actions are the most appropriate to be used by the nurses to empower the women of Monash for smoking cessation. They key actions are
The joint action of the policy makers of all the sectors and at all the levels would contribute to health because they should be aware of the health consequences of their decision (WHO, 2019). It is about making the healthier choice the easiest choice for the policy makers. According to a survey conducted in Monash, 10.8 residents are current smokers in 2015. In the City of Monash, 4.8 females of age group 18-24 are current smokers (Womens Health East, 2018). Though the smoking population is less but there are chances of it increasing so there is a need for some policies to promote the smoking cessation and its harmful health effects. The nurses can get involved in the national level in promoting the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Smoking was identified as the biggest problem under the active and healthy Monash. The most suggestive policy by the nurses is the increase in the tax on tobacco that would help the tobacco control and the encouragement of the smoking-cessation programmes which would be a cost-effective way to help people in quitting smoking (Mak, Loke amp Wong, 2018). The nurses should force for the strict ban on smoking or at least smoking free environment at their workplace. Despite of having the local law no. 4 and 3A to promote the smoking cessation still there are less programmes that aim at educating the Monash women about the consequences of smoking.
To ensure the positive benefits to the public health, the changing environment such as the living, working environment and rapid urbanization should be systematically assessed (WHO, 2019). The health issues are caused by various social, environmental and behavioural determinants of health. These include the unemployment, peer pressure to indulge with the community members, not completing high school and so on leading to the psychological stress such as depression and mental illness (Womens Health East, 2018). The nurse should ensure the supportive environment by educating them on the harmful consequences of smoking. Nurses can help the tobacco users to overcome their addiction (Harvey amp Chadi, 2016). They should promote smoke-free workplaces and extend the availability of resources on tobacco cessation. The supportive environment can be created by the nurses by spreading the awareness by putting up posters of no smoking and smoking kills and harmful effects of smoking. The nurse can create a committee to enhance the awareness about the issues of tobacco control such as the integration of smoking termination into practice. The female population of the City of Monash should be made aware of the better life, money saving and the qualities that can be improved after the smoking cessation.
The community development seeks the resources of existing human and material in the community that can help to enhance the social support and would develop the lenient systems for strengthening the public participation in the way of health matters (Fry amp Zask, 2016). The nurses seek for funding support from various communities to be able to organize the campaigns to promote the smoke cessation. The community actions can be strengthened by making a plan and implementing it for the harmful effects of smoking. The community can be addressed through the preventive, curative and rehabilitation services by the nurses in Australia (Keleher amp Parker, 2013). They inform and educate the community in a non-confrontation way about smoking prevention and educating on the basis of evidence based useful clinical information. According to a city evidence, 75 of Monash people supports smoking ban which is greater than Victroian support which is 69.8 (City of Monash, 2018). The City of Monash has health department, inner east primary care partnership, Monash council directorates, community representatives, specialist agency relevant to the delivery of health priority and so on. The nurses should associate with them in order to strengthen these communities present (Nurse key, 2017).
The health promotion enables the personal and social development by providing the health education, giving the information and enhancing life skills. This helps in having more control of health and better improvement. The women of age 18-24 should be taught by nurses about the risk in pregnancy that they may face in future. Each woman should think about their health and long-term harmful effect of smoking. The low health literacy rate is a barrier for making appropriate health decisions. The nurses should communicate with the multicultural population in clear language, easy to read information should be given and use of non-medical terms for better understanding (Clinical Excellence Commission, 2018). The nurses should provide one-on-one counselling for the bad effects of smoking and its devastating consequences (Golechha, 2016). The nurse can also make phone calls and talk to individuals about the same and how smoking cessation can improve the quality of their lives. The cause of smoking should be identified by the nurse and resolving the causes will help adult women in quitting it. The personal counselling and the good communication skills of the nurses will help women in smoking cessation and understanding its benefits.
The individuals, health service institutions, community groups, government and health professionals should work together towards a healthcare system that contributes to the pursuit of health (Better health channel, 2019). This requires stronger health research and the changes in professional education and training. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) gives health professionals the clinical guidelines and their role in supporting the cessation of smoking. A perception that it is ineffective, lack of time, perceived lack of patient motivation and so on are some of the guidelines. The health sector has increased its research on the tobacco use and its related lifestyle diseases such as cancer (pdhpe, 2015). The community groups should help the nurses in setting up the campaigns to promote the smoking cessation. The government should help nurses in establishing the smoke-free workplaces around to save the Monash people from smoking and its harmful effects. The nurses and the doctors should promote health by advocating smoking cessation by prescribing nicotine patches and medications to replace nicotine addiction (Australian Government Department of Health, 2018).
The essential issues in developing the strategies for promoting health are caring, ecology and holism. In each phase of planning, implementing and evaluation of health promotion activities, all men and women should be equal partners (Victoria State Government, 2018). From a health perspective, a nurse will encourage both men and women to quit smoking and have control over their health. Nurses belong to a caring profession where they do not discriminate on the gender basis. The smoking is harmful equally to men as much as women. The nurses act of smoke-free workplace is for both men and women and not only for women. This would prevent even males from smoking and save men too. Monash supports a smoke-free environment where smoking is not permitted in the campus, grounds and university buildings (Monash University, 2019).
Thus, we can conclude that the nurses play the vital role in smoking cessation and reducing it by 5 in Monash women of age group 18-24. The nurses educate them, spread awareness and literate them for the harmful and devastating effects of smoking on individuals. There are many laws and policies regarding the smoking cessation in Australia but there is a need to spread awareness to empower the females to quit smoking. The Ottawa six key actions help the nurses to carry on the process of empowerment carefully and coherently. This had a great impact and saved many peoples lives. They quit smoking and even encourage others to do so. They helped in establishing the smoke-free environments and the smoke-free area that helped non-smokers too. The nurses have an inspiring role in empowering by health literacy, health education and health promotion. The health promotion programme on reducing the smoking rate in Monash women by 5 by the nurses had a positive impact not only on the women but also on the men.
Better Health Channel. (2019). Health promotion. Retrieved from https//www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/servicesandsupport/ottawa-charter-for-health-promotionviewAsPdftrueCity of Monash. (2018a). Advocating for smoking ban. Retrieved from https//www.monash.vic.gov.au/About-Us/Council/Our-Organisation/Advocacy/Advocating-for-smoking-banClinical Excellence Commission. (2018). Health literacy. Retrieved from http//www.cec.health.nsw.gov.au/quality-improvement/people-and-culture/person-centred-care/partnering-with-patients/health-literacyFry, D., amp Zask, A. (2016). Applying the Ottawa Charter to inform health promotion programme design. Health promotion international, 32(5), 901-912. Doi https//doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw022 Golechha, M. (2016). Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation a comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward.International journal of preventive medicine,7. doi10.4103/2008-7802.173797Harvey, J., Chadi, N., Canadian Paediatric Society, amp Adolescent Health Committee. (2016). Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.Paediatrics amp child health,21(4), 201-204. Doi https//doi.org/10.1093/pch/21.4.201Mak, Y., Loke, A., amp Wong, F. (2018). Nursing Intervention Practices for Smoking Cessation A Large Survey in Hong Kong.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,15(5), 1046. Doi10.3390/ijerph15051046Monash university. (2019). Smoke free Monash. Retrieved from https//www.monash.edu/ohs/health-and-wellbeing/smoke-free-monashNurse key. (2017). Strengthning community action. Retrieved from https//nursekey.com/strengthening-community-action/Papadakis, S., Cole, A. G., Reid, R. D., Coja, M., Aitken, D., Mullen, K. A., ... amp Pipe, A. L. (2016). Increasing rates of tobacco treatment delivery in primary care practice evaluation of the Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation.The Annals of Family Medicine,14(3), 235-243. Doi 10.1370/afm.1909
Pdhpe. (2015). Reorienting health service. Retrieved from https//www.pdhpe.net/better-health-for-individuals/what-strategies-help-to-promote-the-health-of-individuals/the-ottawa-charter-as-an-effective-health-promotion-framework/reorienting-health-services/Keleher, H., amp Parker, R. (2013). Health promotion by primary care nurses in Australian general practice.Collegian,20(4), 215-221. Doi https//doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2012.09.001Victoria state government. (2018). Ottawa charter for health promotion. Retrieved from https//www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/ServicesAndSupport/ottawa-charter-for-health-promotionWHO. (2019). Health promotion. Retrieved from https//www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/index1.htmlWomens Health East. (2018). Women and tobacco. Retrieved from http//whe.org.au/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2018/03/Women-and-Tobacco-Fact-Sheet-FINAL_1-3-18.pdf
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