Health promotion is a process that provides literacy to people to have control over their health and to improve it to promote health. As a foundational document for health promotion, Ottawa Charter was initiated in 1986 to spread awareness and educate mass for their health. It covers five field of action and has majorly three action strategies. It was organized by World Health Organization and has been promoting the health for so long. This charter provides a content and methodological integration model that develops various strategies such as health education, preventive medicine strategies, health counseling and health self-help. The epidemic of obesity has doubled in past few years. This essay covers the health promotion on obesity among the individuals of Dandenong. About 70 of men in Australia and about 56 women are obese (Edoconf, 2018). There is a need to educate and counsel people of Australia. The following essay will be covering various strategies for health promotion such as building health public policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community actions, developing personal skills and reorienting health services to promote health literacy and education.
Dandenong is one of the worst towns for having highest number of obese individuals (Cornish, 2014). To end this, the most logical choice that can be adopted is the Ottawa charter actions. Here the steps taken to educate mass of Dandenong about obesity by using the Ottawa charter field of actions are discussed and how they are specific for our target population. In order to promote health, the individuals of Dandenong need to be educated, made aware and counsel up on obesity and enable them to take actions to fight against it. Nurses promote health by education about disease prevention and changing the individuals behavior towards their health. They do this by adopting following strategies
The literacy and health promotion policies are broad and it includes organizational changes, legislation, taxation and appropriate measures. The obstacles need to be identified for the adoption of public health policies and the development of mitigating ways (Flynn, 2015). The policies in health literacy need to be addressed as how these skills and to what extent will they influence the health of the population. The health and the education system along with the wider sphere of society and culture are to be improved to enhance health literacy. In Dandenong, to promote health the first step will be to build health public policy as per the Ottawa charter plan. For this, there is a need to establish correct statistics to find out the number of obese people and their lifestyle. We will identify all the risk factors that lead to obesity. There is state government policy and legislation in Australia that requires the councils to set a mission, priorities and goals for the improvement of the health and well-being considering all the contributing factors (Community well-being plan, 2017). A proper campaign to promote the awareness of obesity in Dandenong should be set up that would provoke people to see obesity as a risk factor of their lives. We will then draw up on all the obstacles that are coming in the way to build a suitable policy for obesity awareness and education. The obstacles faced during the campaign includes individuals misconceptions about their health, them not knowing they are obese, they did not know they have other disorders related to obesity only .The building of the ways to mitigate the obstacles will be the next step. It will be requiring policy support from multiple levels of government and integrating the strategies to build a policy.
One of the five fields of actions of Ottawa charter for health promotion is to create supportive environment. This refers to create supportive settings such as providing environment in which people live, earn, work, play and carry out their daily activities. The creation of the highly supportive environments enables to make the healthy choices as the easiest choices. It is to improve living and working conditions for the individuals who are obese. Choosing on unhealthy packaged foods and fries is very easy and a ready-to-go option always for obese people. This kind of environment should be replaced with the healthy one. Creation of social groups that encourage people to eat healthy and exercise more in order to fight from obesity is a very good move. Calorie menu labeling will help in creating supportive environment as it would increase the demand of less energy healthier food options (A T Flynn, 2015). Various health nutrition actions would be taken to encourage people to adapt new habits of healthy eating and healthy living. According to guideline 1 of Australian guide to healthy eating, to meet the energy needs of a body it is important to choose healthy nutrition diet and drinks to be able to maintain a healthy weight and be physically active (Australian Government, Department of Health, 2017).
It is the process of involving the community in the health promotion process. In order to be able to provide social support and community self-help, it utilizes the community resources. According to Ottawa charter, this action also looks forward to develop the systems that are flexible for strengthening participation of public in the direction of health matters (pdhpe, 2015). This action focuses on strengthening communities such as physical activity community and school community. The school community can be improved by teaching students to drink water instead of sugar sweetened beverages and giving them access to free drinking. In community, to increase physical activity, various strategies such as point of decision that tells to use path can be adopted (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). For this, full support from social groups, individuals learning skills and funding support are required. There should be full access to the information and learning skills are required. According to the survey in Australia, residents of Greater Dandenong marked to have relatively limited physical activity. About 33 of greater Dandenong residents did not indulge in any physical activity for 30 minutes or more and that too not even for a day in a week (Brown, 2019). Residents of Greater Dandenong hold the second lowest score in Victoria for indulging in physical activity. There is a need to encourage the people to engage in physical activity to fight against obesity. Health promotion is very important for nurses but a number of obstacles related to the organizational culture prevents the effective delivery (Kemppainen et al., 2013).
This is the fourth strategy of Ottawa charter for health promotion. As a nurse it is very important to develop personal skills. Promoting health supports development of both personal and social by giving information, enhancing life skills and providing literacy for health. This way people are able to make health conductive choices and are able to control their own health. This action enables individuals to learn about various health aspects and chronic diseases and injuries and ways to cope and mitigate them (WHO, 2019). The nurses range of expertise should allow them to be able to use their skills to help others develop them. This action field focuses on what individuals are supposed to do. To develop personal skills, one should adopt healthy eating and should understand the need to exercise. A practical guidance on healthy eating guidelines and nutrition should be given to the mass of Dandenong. A nurse should be well developed with skills and knowledge about healthy eating and nutrition so that she is able to impart the knowledge to the people of Dandenong and which food is suitable according to age, gender, individuals with particular diseases and so on. This field focuses on developing personal, interpersonal skills and effective communication skills to be able to engage and consult with a wide range of people, individuals, organizations and communities. The nurses lack in health promotion competency so there is a need to develop personal skills.
This is the fifth field of action of Ottawa charter that requires much stronger attention to research in health sector and provides changes and alterations in education and training that are professional (World Health Organization, 2019). The health sectors role should always be moving increasingly in promoting health in right direction and beyond its duty to provide clinical services. Health professionals play an important role in educating and motivating people to fight against obesity by providing them with assistance. This section also focuses on funding and providing services related to health by providing preventions and early interventions. As statistics above shows the rate of obesity in Dandenong and its effect on mortality and morbidity rate by leading to various diseases, reorienting the health services will allow people to have access to health services that will ultimately decrease the burden. The government of Australia has taken several steps for individuals with obesity such as it is mandatory to have sugar labelling on packaged foods, food marketing and health star rating system (Plos, 2015).
Obesity is one of the major risk factors of many diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases among the individuals of Dandenong. The Ottawa charter encourages the health promotion for such individuals so that they can have control over their health and are able to do self-care. There is a need to educate and literate people about various health related risks so that they start taking action and take care of themselves. Ottawa broadly uses five above mentioned strategies for health promotion. More people participating in it would help in achieving better health in towns like Dandenong where obesity rate is too high. As a nurse by using Ottawa charter plan for promoting health certain measures can be taken and they are expected to show results of people with better health outcomes.
A T Flynn, M. (2015). Empowering people to be healthier Public health nutrition through the Ottawa Charter. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 74(3), 1-10.
Australian Government department of health. (2017). Australian guide to healthy eating. Retrieved from https//www.eatforhealth.gov.au/guidelines/australian-guide-healthy-eatingBrown, H. (2019). Profile of health and well-being- Greater Dandenong. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//www.google.co.uk/urlsatamprctjampqampesrcsampsourcewebampcd7 ampved2ahUKEwiLtLz1g4ThAhWb X30KHTVEBfsQFjAGegQIBRACampurlhttp3A2F2Fwww.greaterdandenong.com2Fdocument 2F261132Fhealh-and-wellbeing-profileampusgAOvVaw1vcGYbYyWhAW6OnORYUb_r
Centers for disease control and prevention. (2017). Community efforts. Retrieved from https//www.cdc.gov/obesity/strategies/community.htmlCornish, L. (2014). Victoria leads way in fighting childhood obesity. Retrieved from https//www.heraldsun.com.au/news/victoria/victoria-leads-way-in-fighting-childhood-obesity/news-story/cade069424cb6d4566329a548702e754Edoconf. (2018). Australias rate of severe obesity has doubled. Retrieved from https//eatingdisordersaustralia.org.au/australias-rate-severe-obesity-doubled/Flynn, M. A. (2015). Empowering people to be healthier public health nutrition through the Ottawa Charter.Proceedings of the Nutrition Society,74(3), 303-312.
Kemppainen, V., Tossavainen, K., Turunen, H. (2013). Nurses roles in health promotion practice an integrative review. Health Promotion International, 28(4), 490-501.
Plos. (2015). Obesity prevention in Australia Clear opportunities for action. Retrieved from https//plos.org/globalhealth/2018/10/obesity-prevention-in-australia-clear-opportunities-for-action/Pdhpe.net. (2015). Strengthening community action. Retrieved from https//www.pdhpe.net/better-health-for-individuals/what-strategies-help-to-promote-the-health-of-individuals/the-ottawa-charter-as-an-effective-health-promotion-framework/strengthening-community-action/World Health Organization. (2019). Health promotion. Retrieved from https//www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/index1.html
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