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Principles of Primary Health Care

Promoting health is the act of empowering persons to increase control of and enhance their wellbeing. An individual or community must be able to accept and fulfil demands, to meet conditions, and to enhance or deal with the atmosphere to sustain a state of full physical, social and mental well-being. Health, not the intention of living, is often seen as a choice for everyday life. Wellbeing is a positive ideology that values physical abilities and social as well as personal resources. So, health education and promotion is not only the accountability of the health care settings but also applies to well-being beyond safe lifestyles (Ramchand et al., 2017). Creating healthy public policy, establishing welcoming environments, improving community action, improving leadership skills and reorienting health care are the five main areas of focus of the Ottawa Health Promotion Charter and three basic HP strategies (to allow, mediate and advocate) (Thompson et al., 2018). Diabetes mellitus, commonly called diabetes, is a type of metabolic condition characterized over an extended period by an elevated level of blood sugar. Frequent urination increased hunger, and increased appetite are some of the symptoms. When treating patients with diabetes, all nursing personnel have a significant function and specific roles. Healthcare teams from across the healthcare continuum are expected to come into touch with patients who have diabetes or have tests to detect diabetes, including occupational health nurses, and nurses involved in public health (Taggart et al., 2018). The nurses play an especially significant role as they are also the ones who conduct annual diabetes and foot examination. In specific, nurses have to play a critical role in the screening, maintenance, and rehabilitation of persons with diabetes. A supportive partnership between a nurse and a diabetes patient was developed and was a resource for improving wellness. The nurses defined that since they were more accessible at the hospital and spending more time working with the patients, they were closer to the patients than the doctors. The nurse had the potential, however, to foster wellbeing in this intimate relationship. In the patient sessions, the nurses described encouraging wellness as an approach to communicating with patients and fostering contact. The bond between the nurse and the patient was expressed as positive by the nurses, being pleasant and using humor was a way to communicate with the patients (Iriarte‐Roteta et al., 2020).

The burden of diabetes in health care system of Australia have been increasing. The key tracking data on the incidence, length, hospital stays, and mortality from diabetes in Australia have been produced by the Australian Institution of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Based on the data reported from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in the year 2017–18 an estimated 1.2 million Australians (4.9 percent of the total population) have diabetes (AIHW, 2020),. This calculation includes individuals with diabetes (both type 1 and type 2 diabetes), and an uncertain type of diabetes, but excluding the gestational diabetes. As per the Australian Centre of Healing, there were around 1.2 million case of diabetes-related hospital admissions in 2017-18, with 5 percent identified as the main disease (responsible for hospital admission) and 95 percent recorded as an incidental diagnosis (a coexisting illness with the main diagnosis or a condition that impacts patient care by hospitalization). This makes up 11 percent of all hospitalizations in Australia (AIHW, 2020).

Build a Healthy Public Policy

Health promotion reaches beyond health insurance. In all industries and at all levels, this puts well-being to the agenda of policymakers, enabling them to be mindful of the health implications of their decisions and to consider their health obligations. Caring, holism, and biodiversity are central concerns in the implementation of health promotion policies. When treating people with diabetes or who have examinations to detect diabetes, nursing personnel have an essential function and specific roles (Richmond & Cook, 2016). This position and related roles will be defined in local organizational guidelines and policy and by the level of expertise of each member of the nursing team. The nurses work in near partnership with people with diabetes to support decision-makers. For patients with diabetes, nursing care preparation targets include successful therapy to normalize blood pressure and problems with insulin replacement, exercise, and healthy diet, The establishment of a national education curriculum for nurses that also offers knowledge of healthier behaviors and strategies for improving diabetes could also be beneficial (Villeneuve, 2017). Nurses need to be empowered so that they can function freely to support diabetic patients. It is also important to make health promotion function more effective with better knowledge for nurses on health promotion and health promotion techniques.

Create Supportive Environments

A socio-ecological approach to health is focused on the inextricable connexions between human beings and their environment. The nurses need to be extra supportive in providing care as well as creating a positive environment for diabetic patients. Promoting wellbeing ensures that the nurse encourages people to engage in certain events and make the environment better for diabetic patients. And the nurse may encourage the patient to join these campaigns if any organizations plan any promotions and major events (Samur & Seren Intepeler, 2019). It may be the hospital or some organizations that coordinate the diabetic patient program or events. There are also clubs for surgeons and clubs for patients with diabetes. A nurse or a doctor will also come and speak to the participants who mostly are diabetic patients. The internet, like television or posters, has an important role in creating a good environment and awareness for diabetic people.

Strengthen Community Actions

In setting goals, the nurses help in making recommendations, preparing plans, and executing them to promote greater health, health promotion functions through meaningful and efficient collective action. The liberation of societies is at the core of this process-their possession and management of their destinies and endeavors. The nurses explained how they approached the collectivist culture in which help from other community members plays a significant role in the work that promotes wellbeing (Maier et al., 2018). It was stated that support from other patients, as well as support from families, was critical for promoting patient wellbeing. In the health-promoting work of the nurses, relatives and other patients were also identified as to help. If the patients see a particular individual with benefits they have enhanced incentive, provide positive examples of other patients who have had good benefits. Offer those close to the patient, such as family, details so they can better inspire the patient (Strandås & Bondas, 2018). Furthermore, there is a need for communities to promote physical activity and create supportive environments for active living.

Develop Personal Skills

Health promotion promotes social wellbeing and personal improvement in nurses by offering knowledge, health education, and improving life skills. In doing so, it expands the chances for people to practice greater autonomy and make health-friendly choices about their wellness and behaviors. A nurse has to develop personal skills that can help them to tackle situations dealing with diabetic patients. For nurses, wellness awareness plays an important part, and if the nurse does not instruct motivate the patient to perform physical exercise and provide a balanced diet, certain problems would be better for the patient. And the nurse is responsible for these problems if the patient has a pressure ulcer or other problems and has a lengthy hospital stay. It is a nursing duty to instruct and advise the patient about a healthy lifestyle (Fitzpatrick et al., 2016).

Reorient Health Services

Individuals, neighborhood associations, health providers, health care agencies, and states share the responsibility for health promotion and health systems. They ought to work together for a scheme of health care that leads to the pursuit of wellbeing. The role of the nurses, outside its responsibility for delivering therapeutic and curative care, must step gradually in the direction of health promotion. An extended requirement that is responsive and recognizes cultural needs must be embraced by the nurses. This mandate should promote the healthy living interests of people and neighborhoods and open the interaction between the health care settings and the larger political, social, physical, and economic aspects of the community. It should, however, be evident that nurses add to the community's wellbeing and have a healing atmosphere (Cusack et al., 2017).

Health is an optimistic philosophy that recognizes both collective and personal wealth and physical skills. The wellness is created by concern for self and others, by being able to make choices and affect the aspects of one's life, and by maintaining that one lives in a society that creates a chance to advance well-being with all its people. The nurses defined that since they were more accessible at the hospital and spending more time working with the patients. The nurses described encouraging wellness as an approach to communicating with patients and fostering contact. The nurses need to be extra supportive in providing care as well as creating a positive environment for diabetic patients. Promoting wellbeing ensures that the nurse encourages people to engage in certain events and make the environment better for diabetic patients.

References for Health Promotion and Wellness Initiatives

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020).Diabetes: Australian hospital statistics. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/diabetes

Cusack, C., Cohen, B., Mignone, J., Chartier, M. J., & Lutfiyya, Z. (2017). Reorienting public health nurses’ practice with a professional practice model. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research49(1), 16-27.

Fitzpatrick, J. J., Modic, M. B., Van Dyk, J., & Hancock, K. K. (2016). A leadership education and development program for clinical nurses. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration46(11), 561-565.

Iriarte‐Roteta, A., Lopez‐Dicastillo, O., Mujika, A., Ruiz‐Zaldibar, C., Hernantes, N., Bermejo, E., & Pumar‐Méndez, M. J. (2020). Nurses’ role in health promotion and prevention: A critical interpretive synthesis. Journal of Clinical Nursing.

Maier, C. B., Budde, H., & Buchan, J. (2018). Nurses in expanded roles to strengthen community-based health promotion and chronic care: Policy implications from an international perspective; A commentary. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research7(1), 64.

Ramchand, R., Ahluwalia, S. C., Xenakis, L., Apaydin, E., Raaen, L., & Grimm, G. (2017). A systematic review of peer-supported interventions for health promotion and disease prevention. Preventive Medicine101, 156-170.

Richmond, C. A., & Cook, C. (2016). Creating conditions for Canadian aboriginal health equity: the promise of healthy public policy. Public Health Reviews37(1), 2.

Samur, M., & Seren Intepeler, S. (2019). Nurses' view of their work environment, health and safety: A qualitative study. Journal of nursing management27(7), 1400-1408.

Strandås, M., & Bondas, T. (2018). The nurse–patient relationship as a story of health enhancement in community care: A meta‐ethnography. Journal of Advanced Nursing74(1), 11-22.

Taggart, L., Truesdale, M., Dunkley, A., House, A., & Russell, A. M. (2018). Health promotion and wellness initiatives targeting chronic disease prevention and management for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities: Recent advancements in type 2 diabetes. Current Developmental Disorders Reports5(3), 132-142.

Thompson, S. R., Watson, M. C., & Tilford, S. (2018). The Ottawa Charter 30 years on: Still an important standard for health promotion. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education56(2), 73-84.

Villeneuve, M. J. (2017). Public policy and Canadian nursing: Lessons from the field. Canadian Scholars’ Press.

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