The main types of diabetes are gestational, type 2, and type 1. Type 2 is most common but it can be prevented by using health promotion project plans. The indigenous populations are more prone to diabetes in Australia than the non-indigenous populations (Kaldor et al., 2015). For this plan the focused/target group is middle-aged and the old aged people. Such a category of individuals is more prone to develop type 2 diabetes especially if they are older, already a family history of diabetes, an unhealthy lifestyle, or if they are overweight. According to Nguyen et al. (2016), the risk factors for type 2 diabetes are low levels of good cholesterol, high blood pressure, overweight/obese, physical inactivity, and many others. However, the awareness among the populations about these risk factors and the measures to prevent them can help in the promotion/success of the health promotion project plan. The later sections will discuss an entire health promotion project plan for type 2 diabetes among indigenous populations in Australia -like the involved stakeholders, evaluation of a plan for its effectiveness, and many others.
The health promotion is beneficial for middle-aged and old aged target group because of their rapidly increasing number of cases annually. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare(2020), in Australia, every day nearly 300 people are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Around 1.7 million are already having the disease and this disease is becoming the biggest challenge to be confronted as the major middle-aged and old aged populations are highly getting affected. The males are 1.4 times more in number than the females in case of developing the disease and the older aged people are developing the disease more. The people of very remote or nearly remote areas show a rate of 2.5 times higher than those in major cities in case of developing the disease (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2020). So, there is an urgent demand to save and prevent the target population from developing the disease. This will not only reduce their risk of hospitalization, risk of disease, disability, but will also improve quality of life, eliminate health disparities, and empower them to live a healthy life (Dunbar, 2017). Furthermore, it will reduce the cost burden on families, communities and the nation will get the chance to spend on medical care services. The need to frame a health plan for the target category will result in increasing the life expectancy of people so that they can contribute to the nation’s development rather than getting risk with such diseases. The health promotion plans will also reduce obesity, encourage people to control blood glucose, and perform daily physical activities/exercises. This will also help in understanding the ways to prevent risk factors and access to professional care services.
This health promotion project plan aims to educate the indigenous population about the risk factors and spread awareness about how to prevent the disease from developing. This will be achieved by conducting programs with middle-aged and old aged people along with their families to educate them about the risk factors and importance of a healthy diet. The indigenous people along with the health professionals are trained about the ways to prevent the development of risk factors that can lead to the disease. The middle and old aged people should be made aware of the harms of smoking, drinking, high-calorie intake, and other factors that can affect their health. The aim is to achieve a healthy population because in Australia every 5 minutes 1 person is being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Health professionals and graduating nurses are also educated to make their patients aware of the preventive measure of the disease. The governmental and non-governmental organizations should conduct programs in schools, institutes, private sector offices, and many other areas. This awareness will spread information about controlling blood pressure, quitting smoking/drinking, regular checking of blood glucose levels, no skipping of meals and medication doses will help the individuals to prevent the disease. This will improve the health status of the country, access to health medical services, and equal opportunity to achieve quality care.
Health Promotion Management Perspectives are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary. This project plan falls into the primary section because in this the aim is to educate others about the risks and prevent the occurrence of the disease. In this plan, the target group will be educated with the help of conduction of community activities, sessions, counseling, and programs about the preventive ways. They will be taught about the importance of a healthy lifestyle and physical well-being that will reduce the risk of factors that lead to the development of diabetes in an individual who is having a family history of diabetes or those who have discharged from the hospital after their diabetic treatments. As these plans are all centered around prevention of the occurrence of the disease so it falls under the primary section of health promotion management perspective. According to Golinowska et al. (2016), an older individual can be encouraged to stay healthy by – encouraging them to do daily morning or evening walks, stay hydrated and visit their physicians for regular check-ups.
The various stakeholders for this health promotion project plan include governmental, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), social workers, and health professionals. According to McElfish et al. (2019), the Australian government invests up to 6 billion dollars including government subsidies and healthcare costs. The government and NGOs should manage a relationship with the health practitioners, policymakers, and social workers to ensure that everyone gets access to health services. A collaborative contribution and a diverse set of ideas will result in a better project plan. The government should release a sufficient amount of funds for funding the general practitioners should regularly check or instruct their patients and their family members about the health promotion projects. The social workers should spread awareness among the aged people about a healthy lifestyle and the media should also ensure the education of prevention of risk factors and many others. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2020), the Australian government has launched a National Diabetes Data Working Group (NDDWG) for monitoring the diabetes status of the country and take necessary actions accordingly. This committee includes policymakers, clinicians, consumers, and researchers. They report to the National Diabetes Strategies Group (NDSG). All these are needed to be a part of the health promotion project plan for effective results. These all will ensure that correct/updated information is available for every individual with proper and equal access to the offers to ensure care services to remote and major city residents.
Health promotion will be more successful if it is promoted or advertized with a message, a logo, or a tag line. This health promotion project plan is for middle and old aged indigenous populations of Australia for the education of risk factors and prevention. So, the logos should be made accordingly so that it is easier for people to understand things. Use, for example, it is a choice to either live a healthy life or to ruin a life. Life is more beautiful without alcohol and smoke. A perfect investment is your health. The quotes like these can encourage the people of middle and old age to live a healthy lifestyle that will help them in preventing the chances of risk factor development in them. According to Speight(2016), there are 5 principles of health promotion – equity on health, action competence and action, involvement and participation, and positive health concept. Moreover, for any health promotion, the Ottawa charter – creative supportive environment, reorienting health services, developing personal skills, strengthening community action, and building healthy public policy - should be followed.
Many activities can be used for health promotion among adults or elderly/old. The sessions or programs for physical and mental fitness – if the individual is taught about the importance of daily exercises or physical fitness then he/she will get a healthy body and a healthy mind always stays in a healthy body. A mentally fit individual will always have better social, physical, and mental wellness resulting in fewer chances to prone to a diseased state. According to Chen et al. (2017), old patients should be encouraged to get their blood glucose levels checked regularly to ensure their healthy life. They should also get themselves checked from diabetes-related health issues like depression, cardiovascular issues, or stress. Moreover, counseling with such education on risk factors and their prevention will reduce the chances of the target and other non-targeted population to suffer from type 2 diabetes and its related health issues. The nurses and health professional by the use of print, or electronic media should encourage a healthy lifestyle and counseling sessions among the indigenous people as well for their participating in programs organized by communities/societies including physical activities, lengthening life expectancy, and improving their quality of life. The programs should be organized in offices or old age homes for participation in physical activities so that people realize the importance of physical well-being. Moreover, in offices as well the conduction of physical games should be planned regularly to ensure the health of their employees.
For evaluating the success of your health promotion project plan, a survey or interview round can be conducted after 1 year of the project plan as per the impact evaluation of a health promotion plan. According to this evaluation, the effects of health promotion plans on people/individuals and determinants of health are evaluated. This will include a collection of the data about whether the people have started living a healthy lifestyle, how much is their drinking intake, whether they have reduced or quit their smoking habits or not, do they regularly perform physical activities or not. These questions will be asked and if the answers are in positive health then it can be evaluated that the health promotion project plan resulted in positive impacts. Moreover, after checking their blood glucose levels if it is found that the levels are in control in those who have high levels before the health promotion then it will show that the plan gave positive results. The evaluation of health promotion is important to collect data about the effectiveness of the program, identify the unexpected outcomes, justify the use of resources, and many other pieces of evidence. This evaluation will also improve and assess the quality of interventions. Thus, evaluation is also considered as an important step for health promotion project plans.
The population in Australia is increasingly getting affected with type 2 diabetes so it is important to develop a health promotion project plan to combat the issue. This health promotion project plan aims to educate the ingenious population about the risk factors and spread awareness about how to prevent the disease from developing. This will improve the health status of the country, access to health medical services, and equal opportunity to achieve quality care. These health promotion project plans should spread awareness among the population about the following factors: stay hydrated, never miss doses or meals, regularly check blood glucose levels, and many others. A collaborative effort by the government and NGOs can result in the success of this plan. Many activities can be used for health promotion among adults or elderly/old. Moreover, for evaluating the success of your health promotion project plan, a survey or interview round can be conducted after 1 year of the project plan.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020).Diabetes. Retrieved from:https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports-data/health-conditions-disability-deaths/diabetes/overview
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020). The national system for monitoring diabetes in Australia. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/b828aee9-46af-40f0-aade-52723869b668/nsmda-c01.pdf.aspx
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020). Type 2 diabetes.Retrieved from:https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes/contents/hospital-care-for-diabetes/type-2-diabetes#atsi
Chen, C. C., Liu, K., Hsu, C. C., Chang, H. Y., Chung, H. C., Liu, J. S., & Wu, H. W. (2017). Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST). Medicine, 96(6).https://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2FMD.0000000000006025
Dunbar J. A. (2017). Diabetes prevention in Australia: 10 years results and experience. Diabetes & Metabolism Journal, 41(3), 160–167. https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.3.160
Golinowska, S., Groot, W., Baji, P., &Pavlova, M. (2016).Health promotion targeting older people. BMC Health Services Research, 16, 345.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1514-3
Kaldor, J., Magnusson, R., &Colagiuri, S. (2015). Government action on diabetes prevention: Time to try something new. Medical Journal of Australia, 202(1), 578-581.
McElfish, P. A., Ayers, B. L., Felix, H. C., Long, C. R., Bursac, Z., Kaholokula, J. K., Riklon, S., Bing, W., Iban, A., &Yeary, K. (2019). How stakeholder engagement influenced a randomized comparative effectiveness trial testing two Diabetes Prevention Program interventions in a Marshallese Pacific Islander Community. Journal of Translational Medicine, 17(1), 42.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1793-7
Nguyen, H. D., Chitturi, S., & Maple‐Brown, L. J. (2016). Management of diabetes in Indigenous communities: Lessons from the Australian Aboriginal population. Internal Medicine Journal, 46(11), 1252-1259. https://doi.org/10.1111/imj.13123
Speight, J. (2016). Behavioural innovation is key to improving the health of one million Australians living with type 2 diabetes. Medical Journal of Australia, 205(4), 149-151.
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