(a) Rational decision-making is the procedure initiating from the identification of problems through the solution and ends with making logical comprehensive decisions. The model of rational decision making entails assumptions that individuals will make decisions that will increase the benefits for themselves and minimizes the cost. Moreover, rational decisions are those that are based on facts, logic, and the currently existing data (Abubakar et al. 2019). The rational decision making from the case study perspective is to rebuild the Greensburg to the green city only by getting the financial grant from the government and not-for-profit organizations. This decision will maximize the benefit for the people residing in the city and also will not burden them financially and hence minimize the costs.
(b) Three reasons for rebuilding Greenburg as a green city are as follows:
The three reasons against rebuilding Greensburg as a green city are as follows:
(a) Horizontal communication can be defined as the communication among individuals at the same level, or rank within the organization. It usually entails organizing information and enables individuals with an identical position in the company to unite and collaborate (Zulch 2014). It is true that communication is the need of the hour for a healthcare organization as information can be a matter of death and life there. Intermountain healthcare organization needs a free flow of information to be available to perform actions. In this company, the doctors rely mostly on clinical data in order to enhance the patient’s outcomes. This company sees every person as a team member and makes all the employees, volunteers, physicians well informed with updated things. Every department be it communication management, quality department, and more stay in contact with each other and share information horizontally to make better decisions. The main advantage of a horizontal form of communication is that it reduces the misinterpretation between these departments who are working on a similar project of treating the patients. Since the people at the same level are coordinating well with each other, it results in better implementation of decisions of upper-level management and hence leads to maximize productivity and efficiency.
(b) A horizontal form of communication is more prominent in Intermountain Healthcare as all the physicians dealing with patients require the necessary and important information about the history of patients that can only be obtained by collaborating with the people at an identical level in the company. Moreover, it is a transparent organization thus entire information is to be accessible for every department individuals to ease the tasks. Furthermore, comprehensive access to the information regarding patients can be helpful for improving the quality of services given by healthcare departments. A sense of collaboration between diverse departments of a healthcare organization is of utmost relevance as it helps in enhancing the productivity, preventing conflicts due to lack of communication, and quality services (Busari, Moll and Duits 2017).
(a) Managerial grid is the leadership approach that helps the leaders to understand or identify their leadership style and the associated problems faced by them with a particular style. There are two basic dimensions on which it is based namely concern for production, and concern for people. In totality, there are five diverse styles named as country club-style or accommodating style; perish or dictatorial style; team management or sound style; impoverished or indifferent; and middle of the road or status quo style (Gallo, Tausova and Gonos 2016).
The leadership of Hewitt falls on team management on the managerial grid that shows that the leader is focused highly on both tasks and people. It is due to the fact that he is putting his efforts into rebuilding Greensburg strategically by hiring new people who can plan properly. He has a dream to rebuild the city again into a green established city through his task-oriented skills, and this thing helps him to form robust relationships with the citizens of the city.
(b) The shortcomings in the leadership of Hewlett are as follows:
(a) The issues with China-based suppliers that require Numi's managers to use influence and persuasion tactics are related to concerns like preservation of the environment, climate change, waste elimination, and sustainability. The CEO of the Numi Company is of the view that taking care of farmers is of utmost importance but it is equally important not to use the chemicals and it may pollute the farmers. Sustainability is the main issue that could be solved by using post-consumer waste by reusing it in packaging the items beautifully. It is considered to be an issue as this has become important for companies across all the industries to adopt a sustainable approach to doing the activities. It helps them in building strong brand equity in the market as people today are more concerned about social and environmental issues (Morioka and de Carvalho 2016).
(b) Numi gets suppliers to comply with its policies by producing the recycled material that can be used by Numi to ensure sustainability throughout its supply chain. The suppliers must have to follow similar guidelines in terms of sustainability, footprint, and waste as followed by Numi organic tea Company. Moreover, using marketing practices like showing the standards expected for recycling materials like a minimum of 85%, maybe useful for getting the suppliers who comply with its policies. Furthermore, by communicating the expectations in terms of recycled material used, Numi can get suitable suppliers and make its business as sustainable as possible. Additionally, one way to get suppliers is to assess the performance of suppliers in these respects and select accordingly. The company can also develop capacity building and training practices to ensure the capability of suppliers to comply with its policies. It will help those suppliers who are not fulfilling the minimum supplier sustainability standards and help them to develop novel capabilities (Trapp and Sarkis 2016).
(a) Organic structure refers to the decentralized approach that does not have any typical pyramid of leadership flowing from the lower-level workers to the senior authorities. The main purpose of this structure is to form a more similar culture of workers through decentralized management roles. On the other hand, the mechanism or structure is somehow bureaucratic in which teams are led by managers and it is less flexible. It is a centralized approach that is suitable for organizations that are stable and need not adapt to changes (Péréa and Von Zedtwitz 2018).
The Honest tea Company has more of an organic structure than the mechanist structure.
(b) The Honest tea Company has a more organic structure as it is flexible to adapt to the changes. It can be seen by its transparent culture where there is no secretion of information regarding business communication within the organization. Moreover, there is a free flow of information between managers and executives showing that it inspires workers to work together and collaborate with each other to attain the common goal of the business. Furthermore, Seth Goldman and Barry Nalebuff who are members of the company are open to exchange innovative ideas with each other. Additionally, they love to try things in a different way each day and innovates things since the initiation of an honest tea company. The main motive of the company is to keep innovative things to attain efficiency and quality products. This particular aim could only be achieved when the goals of the company are communicated well with the employees and involve them in decisions making of a company that will foster novel and imaginative ideas.
Abubakar, A.M., Elrehail, H., Alatailat, M.A., and Elçi, A.2019. Knowledge management, decision-making style, and organizational performance. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 4(2), pp.104-114.
Busari, J.O., Moll, F.M., and Duits, A.J. 2017. Understanding the impact of interprofessional collaboration on the quality of care: a case report from a small-scale resource-limited health care environment. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 10, p.227.
Gallo, P., Tausova, M., and Gonos, J.2016. Leadership style model based on a managerial grid. Актуальні проблеми економіки, (4), pp.246-252.
Morioka, S.N., and de Carvalho, M.M. 2016. A systematic literature review towards a conceptual framework for integrating sustainability performance into the business. Journal of Cleaner Production, 136, pp.134-146.
Péréa, C., and Von Zedtwitz, M. 2018. Organic vs. mechanistic coordination in distributed New Product Development (NPD) teams. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 49, pp.4-21.
Trapp, A.C., and Sarkis, J. 2016. Identifying Robust portfolios of suppliers: a sustainability selection and development perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, pp.2088-2100.
Zulch, B.G. 2014. Communication: The foundation of project management. Procedia Technology, 16, pp.1000-1009.
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