1.a. Rational decision making is a process that involves multiple steps that starts with identification and ends with the solution, to make a logical decision. The process of rational decision making includes factors like analysis, logical thinking, objectivity and insight (Jelihovschi, Cardoso & Linhares, 2017). The rational decision making has a sequel path of the activities that include -
1. Goal Formulation
2. Criteria Identification for the decision making
3. Alternative Identification
4. Analysis Performance
5. Final Decision Making
The flow chart shows the process and the steps of rational decision making.
The given flow chart explains that there are various steps that are included in the process for effective rational decision making. It assumes that the decision-maker has perfect information and knowledge about the alternatives. Another assumption that is included in the process of rational decision making is that the decision-maker has time, resources and the cognitive ability for the evaluation of each decision or choices with others. The process of rational decision making assumes that the decision will be profitable and should minimize the cost of any organization. The rational decision making does not contemplate the feelings of people, obligation and a sense of loyalty. The objectivity of the process creates a bias to the data, analysis and facts over the desires and intuition.
1.b In the case study of the City of Greensburg, it was stated how the tornado has torn down the town. The tornado turned the town into the post-war zone. After the situation calmed down then there was a golden opportunity of turning the town into the best possible way. The reason of Greensburg as a green town includes –
1. This decision of rebuilding Greensburg as a green town will not only help in the present but also help the future environment. It will lead to reducing waste and also it will help in protecting the environment. As it is stated in the case study of the “ City of Greensburg Kansas” that they began to look up to one of the major things that was more effective, more efficient and things that lead to less waste of the materials.
2. The tornado impacted the town in a very worst way and the town was torn down. The tornado actually made the town look like the post-war zone. The rebuilding of Greensburg as a green town is a sign of the progress and it should be natural. The process of rebuilding Greensburg as a green town was the golden opportunity to recreate and to turn the town in the best possible way.
3. As mentioned in the case study, the residents of the town has never got an opportunity to build the brand new buildings or any museum in the town. The construction of new schools, new museums and new hospitals will be there. The changes and the development will help the town to create a new and more efficient town or the system (GONG, Li & NI, 2017).
The reasons that are against in the rebuilding of Greensburg as a green town are -
1. As stated in the case study that not all of the people who were residing in the town wanted the rebuilding of Greensburg. The idea of the rebuilding were only selected by a few people. The rebuilding of Greensburg into the green town was a very great idea that was not given the good thoughts.
2. The process was not democratic of agreeing on the decision that whether to build the town or not to build. As documented in the case study, the town had not have the enough money to implement such a project at that time. The town was torn down and to embark on that kind of project, it would require the injection of enormous funds. The people of the Greensburg were just recovering from the tornado and they would be paying the heavy taxes to compensate the cost of the brand new buildings and the project for a long time.
3. The town was not ready to contribute to the town's economy but it was appropriate to reinstate the businesses initially as they were the important and major contributors. The increase of businesses in Greensburg will lead to the more tax revenue to earn. The more Greensburg earns then there will be more projects to take on.
2.a. Before understanding horizontal communication we have to understand the importance of communication. Communication is a process where any kind of information is conveyed from one person to another person or through various mediums. These kinds of medium or ways are known as the tools of communication. There are various kind of communication that includes -
1. Upward communication
2. Vertical communication
3. Horizontal communication
4. External communication
Definition - According to industry experts, horizontal communication is described as Horizontal communication takes place between the leader and worker of an organization
Some experts also say that “horizontal communication means the involvement of peers and colleagues at the same level of an organization (Lee, Lee & Sohn, 2017). Horizontal communication is a part of communication in which communication is done within several managers of an organization of very different departments but with similar levels works together
Features of Horizontal Communication -
1. The flow of horizontal communication is lies between different kinds of people who are on the same level in an organization
2. The main purpose of horizontal communication is to coordinate the work to various departments of an organization
3. The method of communication in horizontal communication is generally verbal
4. This kind of communication is formal
5. The possibility of chaos in horizontal communication is high.
The main characteristics of horizontal communication:
Easy to understand: this communication is easily understandable. It is very crucial that whatever we want should be easily understood by everyone. for example, we want to send a message to a person, we should make sure that our message is crystal clear to that person.
Attentiveness: it is very important that whenever peers want to say something we should make sure we give them value. Not paying attention to someone’s message would be very unproductive for an organization (Retnowati, 2019).
Board-mindedness: most of the times, due to narrow mindedness some organizations misinterpret the meaning of the message which is delivered by a worker. This causes conflicts in an organization.
Remembering the message: it is the most important part of horizontal communication, we should have to recall the previous communication which has been done among two persons so that their communication would go smoothly in future.
How is horizontal communication help to grow an organisation?
Each and every department of an organization should work hand in hand with each other.
This will definitely help an organization to grow more and more vigorously. Therefore, horizontal communication is like a boon for an organization.
Two methods of horizontal communication:
1. Oral communication: oral communications indulge with phone calls, video calls, and even through speeches and etc. this kind of communication is more effective in communication between the listener and the speaker as both of them are communicating face to face and they are also in direct contact to each other.
2. Written communication - written communication involves printed media like letters, emails, memos, applications and etc. it is believed that it is a very effective way for a user and a leader of an organization. It also plays a vital role in horizontal communication and makes it easier.
2.b. Horizontal communication is also known as the sharing of information through various employees inside the department of an organisation. The flow of communication is across the firm, and it is not limited to up-to-down or bottom-to-top. It stays with the department and stays at that level. At InterMountain healthcare, horizontal communication takes place between the team members and it is used to help convey information accurately and quickly as a means to help and improve the patient’s outcomes (Wattanapanit, 2019). By having the correct coordination within the team members on horizontal communication this helps more information being shared in an organization. The horizontal form of communication is well known in intermountain healthcare because of certain reasons as follows:
1. This is a transparent organization.
2. This organization informs every important information to the employees and keeps them informed. The system of this organization is symmetrical
3. They have a well-known communication structure between their employees.
3. a. Hewitt's leadership fell on the managerial grid after the tornado as he built strong team management. As he has mentioned before the tornado, the staff was having twenty members but after the tornado, the members of the staff were 35. Hewitt has represented courageous behaviour, determination and the bravery to control and manage a team of 34 members. He motivated and managed the team to the goal that was to rebuild the Greenburg town after the heavy tornado had torn down the town. The tornado turned the town into the post-war zone. After the situation calmed down then there was a golden opportunity of turning the town into the best possible way. He started initiating the things that were not there before like there was no fire department for the full time so, they got the full-time department. Then they got the departments like planning and community development departments.
3.b. The deficiencies and the shortcomings that were identified was that Hewitt ignored the fact that all the town had not had the enough money to implement such a project at that time. The town was torn down and to embark on that kind of project, it would require the injection of enormous funds. The people of Greensburg were just recovering from the tornado and they would be paying the heavy taxes to compensate for the cost of the brand new buildings and the project for a long time. The town was not ready to contribute to the town's economy but it was appropriate to reinstate the businesses initially as they were the important and major contributors. The increase of businesses in Greensburg will lead to the more tax revenue to earn. The more Greensburg earns then there will be more projects to take on.
4.a. The main issues that the Numi’s manager faced with China based suppliers are the ethical and cultural differences. As stated in the case study, the suppliers who were China based were not able to understand how the owner of the Numi Organic Tea wants to operate. The goal of the Numi Organic Tea was not to waste any resources. The issues were related to environmental preservations, doing sustainable business and slowing climate change (Vacchiano et al. 2019). The major reason that Numi’s manager had to influence was that to ensure that herbs and teas purchased by the Numis should be organic. The packaging of the teas should be eco-friendly and there should not be a presence of carbon emission.
4.b. The Numi gets suppliers to comply with their policies with the help of building a meaningful relationship with the farmers. The goal of the Numi Organic Tea was not to waste any resources, to ensure the environmental preservations, doing sustainable business, to ensure that herbs and teas purchased by the Numis should be organic and packaging of the teas should be eco-friendly. To comply with all the policies of the Numi, the managers have to build the direct and meaningful relationships with the farmers.
5.a. Organic structure is the structure that is flexible in nature. Communication can be done between the top management and the low management as well. Honest tea has an organic tea structure with no doubt as it is very flexible for the employees to communicate in the organization. Honest tea has no privacy in their organization.
5.b. Honest tea has an organic tea structure because the structure is flexible in nature of the organization. The owners of the organization are open to exchange the ideas with employees. Honest tea has no privacy in their organization. Communication can be done between the top management and the low management as well in the organization. No one holds any kind of hesitation with each other while communicating. They are open to new ideas and doing things differently on a daily basis. They try to innovate the way of working as the Honest Tea is a new startup
GONG, X., LI, S., & NI, M. (2017). Discussion on the Planning of Building Farmhouse in Progress of Post-Disaster Reconstruction After Yancheng “6.23” Large Tornado Hail Disaster. Journal of Human Settlements in West China, (3), 20.
Jelihovschi, A. P., Cardoso, R. L., & Linhares, A. (2017). Look before you leap: the effects of cognitive impulsiveness and reasoning process on rational decision making. Available at SSRN 2912428.
Lee, G., Lee, M., & Sohn, Y. (2017). High-performance work systems and firm performance: Moderating effects of organizational communication. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 33(5), 951-962.
Retnowati, N. (2019). ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION MODEL IN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SIDOARJO DISTRICT IN MAKING LOCAL REGOLATION. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 6(12), 103-113.
Vacchiano, M. C., Santos, J. W., Angeoletto, F., & Silva, N. M. (2019). Do Data Support Claims That Brazil Leads the World in Environmental Preservation?. Environmental Conservation, 46(2), 118-120.
Wattanapanit, N. (2019). An Investigation of the influences of Organization Communication Patterns upon Team Effectiveness among Private Universities in Thailand: A Multivariate Analysis. Journal of Institutional Research South East Asia, 17(1).
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