Early years in a child’s life are important which acts as a foundation for future development and learning. Early education is critical for young children’s development and wellbeing. This essay describes the key historical and philosophical perspectives on early education, thereby emphasizing on learning as social interaction process. The early childhood education have emerged from philosophical thoughts.
My philosophy is the inclination towards individual child and classroom program structure with children to independently use material through awareness. Childhood education is valid in preparation for adulthood through Froebel‘s approach. The feeling of physical and mental health is emphasized by play and activity for nurturing children by Rousseau, he defends his idea that children are pure and should be protected from society (Tovey, 2017). Rousseau advises that children should not be mentioned about religion until a certain age and they should act on their preference and consider their own perception at a certain age. This aim is to protect children from society‘s artifacts and preserve their self-esteem vision identified as Naturalism in the system. Pestalozzi's work brought a change from conventional schooling and brought educational reform. He envisioned schools for rejecting corporal punishment and home-like institutions where teachers engage students by sensory experience homelike institutions where teachers actively engage students by the use of sensory experiences. John Locke was very keen on discipline and moral character display in children, but not moving to brutality to implement the same (Naji, 2017). John Locke’s belief that adults should act as role models for children universally for their offspring, treating them with respect and acceptance focused on moral behavior (Naji, 2017). I align with postmodernism paradigm with no complete universal application of theory and truth bound by historical context.
Steiner developed the importance of spiritual values and teaching methods based on the balance of practical and artistic learning. The formal education with a fixed curriculum idea was rejected by Pratt who introduced play as an alternative to repression of formal education (Moss, 2019). The world experience through field trip and children learned through social interaction. The curriculum promoted the child focus on physical, emotional and community as a child s learning for their development for progressive society (Moss, 2019). The concept of the good life is a moral concept by Aristotle’s concept of the same. The nature of desire is considered as moral deliberation. The philosophical perspective of education is based on idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, existentialism, and postmodernism.
The idealism focuses on holistic learning and preparing students for reality through an interdisciplinary approach. Realism like idealism focuses on the physical world with knowledge obtained as scientific research useful for survival in life. Pragmatist’s theory argues for knowledge is not permanent and keeps changing with reality with schools through activities and social relationships help in children’s growth (Moss, 2019). The teacher provides learning that should encourage opens and collaboration. Existentialists reject universal ideas and hold the reality created by the individual.
The intellectual development, ability to take initiative, skills for innovation helps the individual in making choice for 'existential' as a self-understanding of the outside world (Murris, 2016). The individual characterizes the concepts by reality and schools exist to aid by focus on the individual. The existentialist’s profound spiritual authentic life would approve any type of education where the emphasis is given to artistic sense. Evaluate knowledge of a divine, perfect condition in which may be an increase in the scientific tendency and child’s place in school, guidance awakening where there is transition is existentialism. Education through masses are built, rather than focus on existentialism in education for the child by historical practical teachings. Thus, truth and goodness helpful in the religious for the society, and schooling and scientific knowledge is true for the individual.
Education is thereby, living oneself of the possibilities of knowing self-professionalization that institutions should turn their attention, all of these other words in questions are able to adapt to changes for self-realization which means an authentic life for society (Ailwood, 2016). It might seem educational system is doubtful to these masses that aid in education for the greatest possible expansion. People prepared to make money prevents them from turning towards culture, and they turn their attention to the problems of culture, or better, the essential questions posed by the human interaction. The persistence, attentiveness, and capacity which includes the development of reasoning and the ability of divergent thinking, creativity, to make judgments, and to analyses and solve problems, for observation and imagination are philosophical aspects of education.
In the Australian, context adaptability with early education followed the experience based on play and language for social skill and cognitive development on new experiments that are the foundation for kindergarten. John Dewey and Steiner s concept of promotion of interest and discovery fostered social consciousness. Knowledge pursuits are the conditions for creative writing purists encouraged for personal choices. Postmodernism theory focuses on how curricular knowledge and transformation helps in developing identities, and transforms a society by rejecting the dominant or master narratives. The child freedom and binary categorizations have dissolved of reality. The emphasis on non-human forces describes the tension and the humanistic approach that dominate initial ways of thinking.
The Malaguzzi theory believed that children have curiosity, potential and knowledge is constructed through everything presented to them. This allows children to learn at their own pace for student-led learning (Fleer, 2018). The traditional school began by offering different curricula, giving the opportunity to be independent thinkers students the connections that idea of building key concepts. Montessori changes the face of education and it’s developed across the world with traditional education applying practical concepts. The Malaguzzi theory highlights the shift from “teaching to the test” and toward the development of emotional capacities (Murris, 2016). This allowed children in giving them a sense of accomplishment where classroom teaching is constructed in character development. They gave creative thinking and helped in cultivating and empower children.
Frobel’s idea became a major education provision for children aged 4 with Rudolf Steiner essentially created education as a social and individual art for fulfilling tasks with teaching as a vocational activity (Moss, 2019). The Montessori method based on human tendencies and character development for the process of learning by the focus on factors such as teaching method, class size, and learning style on the notion of human tendencies. Malaguzzi s idea centered on children at work and play activities. He made observations about recording children’s discussions and teachers taking notes for next steps for the discussion on plan. Knowledge in the traditional analysis as justified true belief is necessary, true belief is sufficient for knowledge with a component of knowing and belief in the tripartite analysis of knowledge. The good life described through the Gettier problem that emphasized on inconsistent knowledge as true belief can be justified as being lucky not necessarily knowledgeable (Gabriel, 2017).
The reconceptualist perceptive focused on understanding the curriculum rather than design and implementation. The limitation with the schools is related to the subjectivity of social structure established for course design. The reconceptualist movement gained momentum in the early 1980s concerned with child development theory and perspectives in the postmodern approach concerned with the dominance of psychology and questions on scientific truths that structure with language and culture applied to all children. Immanuel Kant’s theory of good life is attached with nothing as wholly good since its always attached to something bad with the good is a prized possession with the fulfillment of duty as it’s an obligation (Gabriel, 2017).
The programs are based on the traditional and blended approach that can be sustained in early childhood development to foster child development and growth with a curated curriculum that strikes balance between conceptual leaning and arts and social behavior observed and applied over the years.
Ailwood, J., Boyd, W., Theobald, M. (2016).Understanding Early Childhood Education and Care in Australia: Practices and perspectives. Routledge.
Cohen, E.L., Stupiansky, W.S. (2017).Theories of early childhood education developmental, behaviorist. Taylor and Francis.
Fleer, M. (2018).Child development in educational settings. Cambridge press.
Gabriel, S. (2017).The sociology of early childhood: Critical perspective. Sage publications.
Moss, P. (2019). Alternative narratives in early childhood: An introduction for students and practitioner. Routledge.
Murris, K. (2016).The Post human Child: Educational transformation through philosophy with picture books. Routledge.
Naji, S., Hashim, R. (2017). History, Theory and Practice of Philosophy for Children: International perspective. Routledge.
Tovey, H. (2017). Bringing the Froebel Approach to your early years practice. Routledge.
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