• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : HLSC1200
  • University :
  • Subject Name : Nursing

Essentials of Human Nutrition

Table of Contents

Part A..

Roles of proteins.

2.1. Chemical structure of proteins.

2.2. Digestion and metabolism of protein.

2.3. Roles of protein in human body.

2.4. Suggested dietary intake targets for protein.

2.5. Food sources that provide protein.

Nutritional literacy.

3.1. Ten red flags of junk science.

3.2. Website Fitness check-up.

3.3. Evaluating Nutrition experts.

Part B..

References.

1. Part A

Human body requires many types of nutrient like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, water and minerals. In this assignment the role of protein is discussed. Proteins are important as these are building blocks of the human body.

2. Roles of Proteins

There are more than one lakh types of protein found in the human body.

2.1. Chemical Structure of Proteins

Proteins are large molecules which are composed many amino acids and these are its building blocks. The chemical structure of the protein is derived from the linking of different amino acids. Each of the amino acid is composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), carboxylic group (COOH), amino group (NH2) and any variable. The proteins are formed chemically when many amino acids form large chains and are bonded together. The amino acids are attached together with peptide bonds and hence long chains of proteins are formed.

The above figure shows the structure of protein called insulin which is composed of two peptide chains called alpha and beta. It is composed of 51 amino acids and the two chains are linked with di-sulphide bonds.

2.2. Digestion and Metabolism of Protein

The dietary proteins intake takes place through mouth and then it enters stomach where its digestion starts. In stomach enzyme called pepsin is present. It acts in acidic medium therefore, hydrochloric acid is released by the stomach cells. Mucosal membrane protects the inner lining of stomach from getting damaged due to the action of this acid. With the action of pepsin, the protein becomes denatured and is partially hydrolyzed. Later when it reaches the small intestine then protease is released which breaks the protein molecules into smaller amino acids which are then readily absorbed by the body through active transport (Mann, & Truswell, 2017).

The metabolism of protein occurs in liver where the deamination of amino acids takes place, plasma protein synthesis, formation from urea for removing ammonia and interconversions of amino acids. Ingested protein is the source of ten essential amino acids and nitrogen. Liver takes up the absorbed protein and combines them by peptide linkages. The protein plasma level is controlled tightly and once a limit is reached the excess protein is stored or degraded and used for energy.

2.3. Roles of Protein in Human Body

Proteins are extremely essential for life to exist (Wahlqvist, 2011). Following are some of the roles of proteins in human body.

Many proteins act as enzymes which catalyzes the reaction rate in body cells. These enzymes also help in the regeneration and creation of DNA molecules and carry out complex biomolecular reactions. An example of protein enzyme is carbonic anhydrase.

There are many hormones which affect the functioning of human body and these are composed of proteins. The hormones help in maintaining body balance. For instance, the hormone insulin functions to regulate the blood sugar level.

Antibodies are also made of proteins and these are called as immunoglobulins. It is used for the repairing and healing of the body by the immune system from the foreign bodies like bacteria. The antibodies work together with the immune cells in identifying and separating the antigens from multiplying until the white blood cells destroy the foreign bodies completely.

There are proteins which help in the formation of cell structure. For example, actin protein found in muscles (Medlineplus, September 18, 2020).

Proteins are the major source of energy for the cells. These help in the movement of body and therefore, it is important to have right amount of protein in the body for converting it into energy. However, when protein is consumed in high amount then it is converted into fat and stored in fat cells.

2.4. Suggested Dietary Intake Targets for Protein

The suggested dietary intake target for protein for children, adolescents and adults for males and females are given below:

Figure- suggested dietary intake of proteins (EAR= Estimated Average Requirement and RDI= Recommended Daily Intake).

Source- (Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council, April 9, 2014).

2.5. Food Sources that Provide Protein

The food sources that should be taken by individuals for fulfilling their daily requirements are as follows:

  • Animal products like dairy products, fish, chicken or beef have all the essential amino acids. They are referred to as complete protein or the ideal or high-quality protein (Richter, et al 2015).
  • Soy products, seed of a plant called amaranth and quinoa have all the essential amino acids.
  • Plant proteins like whole grains, nuts, lentils and beans have at the least one of the essential amino acids and these are considered as incomplete proteins.

3. Nutritional Literacy

In this section, two websites are analysed on the credibility of their provided information. These two websites are sportsdietitians and paleoway.

3.1. Ten Red Flags of Junk Science

The websites must provide authentic and correct health information to the public and not mislead them (Guardiola‐Wanden‐Berghe, et al 2011). The sportsdietitians, website was found to be credible in terms of information. It is a government website and has given information related to intake of protein in a scientific manner. The website explains the need of protein supplementation in sports person like endurance athletes. Proteins help in muscle formation and its higher intake from the natural sources like meat and soy products are essential for such people. There were none of the red flags found in this website as given in the appendix 1 of this assignment. However, the paleoway website was found to have red flags as given in appendix 1. The information provided on this website was not backed by proper research work. There were simplistic conclusions and suggestions for dietary intake which were not supported by scientific studies.

3.2. Website Fitness Check-Up

The website Fitness check-up reveals that the presented contented on the sportsdietitians has been provided by the selected and authentic organizations in partnerships with the government. The content is then assessed by the editorial board before making it available for the public. This ensures the credibility of the information given on this website. The publishers are identified including the affiliations and the organizations. The registration information is provided. It is up to date and the date of revision is also mentioned. However, it does not provide for the trace references for the researches given in the article. But the linked organizations providing the information are mentioned duly by the website. It is a government website so that have not mentioned source of revenue. Links to other social media websites are provided so that the information can be spread to many people.

Contrasting to this, the other website taken for analysis lacks in this check-up. The contributors are only the blog writers to have not registration or authorization of presenting health information to public. The publishers are not identified and registration is not given. There is no editorial process and no peer review of the article is done or researches are taken for making recommendations to the public. The information given is not traceable either and the source of revenue is not given. The links to other databases is also not given which could provide for the credibility of the information. Therefore, it is important to ascertain the credibility of the health and diet information as these could be harmful for the people (Zarnowiecki, et al 2020)

3.3. Evaluating Nutrition Experts

The sportsdietitians had mentioned their field of expertise which was for the endurance athletes. The article has been provided by the registered sportsdietitians. The information is authentic and peer reviewed as it has been sourced from proper researches as revealed from its associated organizations. The article is provided by a credible body of sportsdietitians. The vested interests is of helping the sports people make informed choices for protein intake and there are no biases presented due to any personal circumstances. Contrasting to this, the paleoway lacks in demonstrating the expertise field. The qualification of the writer is suggesting the protein intake requirement is that of a chef which is not credible enough for this article. The information is not peer reviewed. The writer is not a member of a credible body rather it is for recipes making. There is vested interests in the topic of only selling the junk information to people to increase website traffic for advertising and hence generating revenue.

4. Part B

The recommended daily intake of protein for a 25 years old female is 62g per kg. in this case, the person is taking less protein than is required. In 200g of serving she will get 44g of protein although fish is a good source of protein as it gives all the essential amino acids and it is baked which also helps in preserving the nutrients. She is also taking milk in breakfast and before bed, however, this does not fulfil her requirement as it only gives less than 10g of protein. This is described in appendix 2.

It is therefore, recommended that she must increase her protein intake by eating eggs in the morning. One egg has 6g of proteins. She needs to increase her protein intake as she is not consuming good sources of protein. Even if she is eating fish this is limited amount. She is eating junk food like coke and ice cream which have less nutritional value. Therefore, she must upgrade her diet chart to include more nutritious food.

5. References for Plant Protein and Animal Proteins

Australian Government. National Health and Medical Research Council. (April 9, 2014). Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. Available at https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/protein

Guardiola‐Wanden‐Berghe, R., Gil‐Pérez, J. D., Sanz‐Valero, J., & Wanden‐Berghe, C. (2011). Evaluating the quality of websites relating to diet and eating disorders. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 28(4), 294-301.

Kwak, S. Y., Forbes, B. E., Lee, Y. S., Belgi, A., Wade, J. D., & Hossain, M. A. (2010). Solid phase synthesis of an analogue of insulin, A0: R glargine, that exhibits decreased mitogenic activity. International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics, 16(3), 153-158

Mann, J., & Truswell, A. S. (Eds.). (2017). Essentials of human nutrition. Oxford University Press.

Medlineplus. (September 18, 2020). What are proteins and what do they do? Available at https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/howgeneswork/protein/

Richter, C. K., Skulas-Ray, A. C., Champagne, C. M., & Kris-Etherton, P. M. (2015). Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?. Advances in nutrition, 6(6), 712-728.

Tokarz, V. L., MacDonald, P. E., & Klip, A. (2018). The cell biology of systemic insulin function. Journal of Cell Biology, 217(7), 2273-2289.

Wahlqvist, M. L. (2011). Food and Nutrition: Food and health systems in Australia and New Zealand. Allen & Unwin.

Zarnowiecki, D., Mauch, C. E., Middleton, G., Matwiejczyk, L., Watson, W. L., Dibbs, J., ... & Golley, R. K. (2020). A systematic evaluation of digital nutrition promotion websites and apps for supporting parents to influence children’s nutrition. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), 17.

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