Part A (Critical appraisal)
Research questions and justification
Results and Limitations
Thomas et al in 2017 had stated that practice placement is a vital step for the physiotherapy students' growth and learning. During the clinical setting practice, the physiotherapy students have to go through tremendous work pressure and long working hours to render care to patients. For the students, it will be the first time exposure to hectic work and it is accepted from them to cope up with the work stress through self- management techniques. Although, Mindfulness centred interventions are an active approach in prevention and cure of psychological health issues. However, the associated mechanism of action is not clear. This essay will critically appraise one research study on the above-stated issue. Followed by a thorough discussion on authorship, research design, question, method and results of the research article. Moreover, barriers and enablers to adopting the study recommendations and/or results concerning the given scenario would be encompassed.
Al-Jundi & Sakka in 2017 stated that critical appraisal of any research study should have a proper appraisal of the authorship’s quality that includes cited credentials, expertise and affiliations in the health sector (p.1). Four authors wrote the current research article, one was a senior lecturer and another was associated professor, in general, practice department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia. Further, two authors were from campus community division of the same university. Further, the conflict of interest also mentioned in the study. Therefore, it could be concluded that authorship of this study being properly appraised as thorough cited credentials and affiliations had been mentioned, followed by clear disclosure about interest conflicts. Authorship and conflict of interest statement were the strength of the study. Whit in 2018 had indicated that conflict of interest is the situation in which legal, commercial, financial or any contrasting interests can affect the research.
McConville et al in 2019 had conducted a study to evaluate the mindful movement and mindful stress reduction interventions effectiveness. In the introduction section, the justification for conducting the research was well formulated. This was the strength of the paper as objective and aim of the research was very well outlined and supported by an ample number of articles published from 2004 to 2019, maximum articles were close to the research date of this research. Further, the author included sex keywords that were “Mindful Movement, Qualitative, Stress, Physiotherapy Student, Study Engagement, and Mindfulness”. Discussion portion in introduction section was the strength of the current research paper, as it was thoroughly outlined, well structure and supported by solid arguments. By Al-Jundi & Sakka, 2017 research question should be well formulated to engage the readers and followed by proper justification, supported by proper documents.
The researcher had deployed a qualitative analytic technique by conducting semi-structured interviews. The researcher very well explained the purpose of choosing this research design, this is the strength of this research article. Further, the author had used thematic analysis technique to gather the data, which were analyzed against the prevailing theoretical background. Although, thematic analysis is relatively flexible as compared to other qualitative research methods, which can cause lack and inconsistency of coherence while developing the themes extracted from the research data, collected during the research (Braun et al, 2019). But, in the present case, the data was not analyzed based on the pre-existing framework, this is the greatest strength of this article. This research design was appropriate as per the aim of the research to fetch data; this is the strength of the current research article. Nevertheless, the authors did not clarify the reasoning for choosing this particular research outline that is the weakness of the research.
The author had included 123 students of the third year, studying in pre-clinical physiotherapy department who had attended two hours curricular lecture about mindfulness and informal and medication practice focused on stress reduction activity. The sample selection is the weakness of the research; the sample size was less, further out of 17 students only six students participated in the whole process. The authors had thoroughly explained the age, race, sex and generation of the participants. Moreover, the researchers had taken prior ethical approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee of La Trobe University. Moreover, the written consent was taken from all the participants. Therefore, ethical and content considerations were the strength of this study.
McConville et al. (2019) had conducted 18 interviews with six students and developed four themes. The main theme was about self-awareness and rest sub-themes were communication, mental health, movement awareness, and study engagement. As per the results, the participants had reported increased enhancement of mental health and self-awareness. Further, the participants described that after sessions they were able to unify themselves more sustainably and effectively. The research concluded that mindfulness helped in more work engagement. The research results should noticeably answer the study aim and objectives with the help of related figures, table and pictures to enhance the findings (Jones et al, 2018). The limitation of this study adversely influenced the study findings, the participants were less in number. Moreover, in this study, the qualitative interview was not combined with academic performance, self- report measures, observer associated scale and stress biomarkers of results variables like patient cares. Further, the students were self-selected in the study.
The application of the discussed research’s recommendation should be taken into consideration in light of the given scenario where the millennial student believes that mindfulness technique can be helpful in stress reduction and should be thought in the University for Stress Management. McConville et al. (2019) recommended: physiotherapy students should engage in the mindfulness training as it benefits to individual well-being, communication, clinical effectiveness and study engagement as a trainee. The barriers to adopting this recommendation at the organization level include scarcity of time by students and trainee and heavy work schedule to attend the sessions of mindful stress reduction and mindful movement. Further, the student needs daily motivation to perform mindfulness practice. The enablers that aid adoption of the discussed recommendation include supporting students to lead a healthier lifestyle and stress reduction while working in clinical settings. Moreover, the practice helps the student to improve mental status by helping in improving sleep and diet. Additionally, helps in better communication and listening that would aid in better patient care practice.
The critical appraisal of the research can conclude that McConville et al. (2019) had chosen the important topic- the mindful movement and a mindful stress reduction interventions effectiveness- when less information had been published on this particular subject. The key weaknesses of the research were discovered including sample size and lack of justification for research design selection. However, the researchers had identified that mindfulness activities help the students to cope up with stress in clinical settings, therefore, aids in improving patients' care procedure. Further, the author had acknowledged the limitation of their study and gave the essential recommendations for further study. It is vital that now more research should be conducted on this important topic.
Al-Jundi, A., & Sakka, S. (2017). Critical appraisal of clinical research. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(5), JE01.
Braun, V., Clarke, V., Hayfield, N., & Terry, G. (2019). Thematic analysis. Handbook of research methods in health social sciences, 843-860.
Jones, B., Smith, J., Barker, J.S., Finn, K., Donn, K., Yebohha, J., Withers, B.M. (2018). Putting research into practice: A primer for undergraduate health professional students. London, UK; Bartlett & Jones.
McConville, J., Lewis, D., Chambers, R., & Hassed, C. (2019). Physiotherapy student experience of a mindful movement and a mindful stress-reduction intervention: A qualitative study. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, 47(3).
Thomson, D., Gowing, F., English, M., & Hassenkamp, A. M. (2017). Exploring the role of mindfulness as a potential self-management strategy for physiotherapy students when on placement. International Journal of Practice-based Learning in Health and Social Care, 5(2), 19-37.
White, E.R. (2020). A student handbook of primary research critical appraisal. London, UK: Elsevier.
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