Facilitating Learning in Health Professional Settings

The structure of health education is of essential consideration as it directly relates to services provided, policies formulated and the decisive future of the healthcare system (Purishottum et al., 2018). Several models of teaching and education are applied in nursing and professional healthcare to integrate the core fundamentals of knowledge with contemporary learnings and practical knowledge. Different models of health education include the behavioral change model, cognitive model, social learning, psychodynamic and humanistic model of learning. Education and knowledge structure in healthcare is different from classical teaching pedagogy as the core implications of these teachings are associated with the direct implications on the welfare of the population (Wood et al., 2016).

Different models are applied in facilitated learning to strengthen the process of learning among the students and develop core fundamentals associated with the subject through a directed approach by aligning the interests of coaching and promoting collaborative learning (Di Vesta, 2017). This essay will explore different teaching models that are applied to the facilitation in contemporary health professional education. This essay will also throw light on the needs of diverse learners who are addressed through these models by drawing a contrasting structure and application of these models. This essay will then provide crucial insights specific to the humanistic model of learning for professional education in healthcare and weigh its limitations and barriers associated with its application to determine the success of the model through critical analysis. Further, the ethical, legal and moral considerations associated with learning will also be addressed in this paper.

A learning model has been described as a process that can assist in the mental and physical development for the acquisition of new skills and knowledge. These learning and facilitation models are based on the theories that explain how the learners can absorb, process and retain the provided knowledge (Wang et al., 2017). The process of learning is inclusive of the emotional, cognitive and environmental influences that have led to the development of different learning models that are suitable to specific learning conditions and the learner that can be applied as per the suitability of the learner and the learning environment (Wood et al., 2016). The behaviorist learning model is associated with the facilitation that correlates the stimulus conditions in the environment with the response obtained from the learners.

The model is based on learning abilities through experiences and environmental stimuli. The model is often associated with systematic desensitization and operant conditioning approach for the respondent conditioning. The key principles of this model include a focus on learner drives and environmental assessment (Basu et al., 2017). The second model to facilitate learning includes the cognitive model of learning. This model stands in contrast to the behaviorist model as it is focused on the thought processes of the learner rather than on the environmental conditioning. This model is closely integrated with the gestalt perspective that emphasizes the “perception of learning”. Social cognition and cognitive development are two core approaches of this model that are used to facilitate a learning process. The basic principles of the cognitive theory are associated with the focus and attention on the internal factors of the learners and the crucial assessment of the developmental stage of the learner (Potter et al., 2017).

The third model of learning that is associated with learning and education facilitation is the social learning model. This model is an amalgamation of the behaviorist and the cognitive model of learning and involves core concepts of role modeling and vicarious reinforcement. The core principles of this model include crucial attention to the role models and the self-regulation processes with crucial importance given to the feedback of the learner’s performance (Kruse et al., 2017). The fourth model of learning that can be applied for the facilitation is the psychodynamic model of learning. The fundamental approach of this learning is that the behavior and learnings of an individual may be conscious or subconscious. This model considers that personality development can occur at every stage of growth and can influence the process of learning and comprehension.

The core principles of this theory assert focus on the personality development of the learner by probing integral assessments and promotion of strength in the learner (Karpetis&Athanasiou, 2017). The humanistic model of learning is the fifth model used for learning facilitation. The model assumes that every individual is unique and possesses an inherent capacity to grow positively. The model is largely based on the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that present a pyramidical approach of physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization in an individual. The humanistic model is based on the principles of desire, positive growth and provision of support and opportunities (Cara et al., 2016).

In healthcare systems and care facilities, the application of the humanistic model of learning is of crucial consideration. The theory asserts that every individual possesses an inherent desire to grow positively. When patients are suffering from incurable illnesses or are struggling with the management of diseases, the application of this model can provide the optimism and direct a positive growth in the patients for their improved care and wellness (Cara et al., 2016). This model can also be of significant aid in assisting patients in palliative care and patients with chronic illnesses. By application of the humanist model, healthcare professionals can serve as facilitators in the process of healing. The development of a strong interpersonal connection is crucial in providing quality care and essential assistance to the patients. By application of the humanistic model, the patients can be comforted and their needs can be catered to by the healthcare professionals efficiently (Dickison et al., 2019). Patients who are suffering from chronic illnesses like cancer and are under the provision of critical care and palliative care can be motivated towards a process of healing by the application of this model and therefore a will to recover can be generated to assist in their recovery.

The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia has established its code of ethics that must be adhered to while delivering the care. An essential component of the code is “patient centered care” (Brousseau & Cara, 2017). The humanistic model caters directly to the delivery of patient centered care in healthcare. The model asserts that every individual is different and their needs and demands must be met with specificity to encourage their wellbeing. This falls in the congruence with the person centered care essential in the healthcare systems. Further, this model also has high applicability in the healthcare settings and among the health care professionals catering to the Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander community. Since the model dictates that the psychological, social and personal needs of the patient must be essentially addressed through an individualistic consideration.

This model can help develop cultural competence in the health care professionals by integrating the psychological and physiological demands of the patients (Bai et al., 2017). Another crucial aspect of the healthcare system that can be impacted by the application of this model is by improving patient education. With the integration of the humanistic model, healthcare professionals will be able to teach the patients and their allies more effectively regarding their cultural safety and in consideration of their psychological needs. The staff members in the healthcare system will be highly respectful, upbeat and emotionally supportive to the patients. This will improve the overall quality of care and healthcare services (Li Jian et al., 2017).

The application of the humanistic model is also associated with several limitations and barriers in the healthcare system. The highly “individualistic” approach in the theory may lead to a greater subjectivity and limit the application of objective measures for the treatment and patient welfare. Another crucial limitation of this theory is that it considers every individual to be “able” and developed to take an informed decision and possess a will towards welfare (Bai et al., 2017). This notion that is used for the generalization of the model is rather vague and inefficient. Patients in critical care settings and palliative care may sometimes not be able to derive a will with an optimistic ideology that is propagated by this model. In certain aspects, the model has also been regarded as “too optimistic” and unrealistic for application in the healthcare facilities. The inherent assumption of the model that all individuals may opt for a positive discourse for the events is unrealistic and therefore, the application of this model is not considered highly practical (Krishnan, 2018). The model promotes autonomy and therefore, this may at times contradict the medical needs of the patient and therefore limits the applicability of the model.

 It has been argued that the applicability of the model is rather more beneficial in therapy and counseling related care practices than clinical practices. The model emphasizes the application of patient beneficence through an autonomous approach. However, the patient may always not be able to develop coherence with the model due to a restrictive understanding of the health conditions and the prevailing stigmas in certain conditions associated with cultural and social beliefs (Letourneau et al., 2020). Another crucial criticism associated with the model is its ignorance of the subconscious participation of the patients or the healthcare providers. It assumes that all the decisions are made with complete consciousness and awareness without any biases and existing notions. The model also asserts significantly on the self efficiency that may not be achieved by every patient.

Another barrier in the application of this model is the subjective understanding and lack of empirical application of the model. This may give rise to ambiguities in its application. Different health professionals and practitioners may perceive the psychological notions associated with the model subjectively and this may hinder decision making from a clinical perspective (Cara et al., 2018). The reliance of the model on generalization and its lack of effectiveness in patients with more severe health conditions are the most prominent criticisms of the model that have limited its application. The applicability of the model has also been limited by the absence of any evidenced empirical evidence that can provide a proof of concept for this model for its operational and scientific application (Letourneau et al., 2020).

The ethical principles for the code of conduct in nursing in Australia have been established by the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia to lay down the rules and regulations to provide efficient care to the patients. The ethical conduct established by the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia possesses seven core principles (Bryce et al., 2017). These include legal compliance, person centered care, cultural practices and development of respectful relationships, the conduct of professional behavior, teaching, supervising and assessing, participation in research associated with health and promotion of health and well being. Of the established code of conduct, the core principles of patient centered care, cultural practice and safety consideration, patient teaching and education and promotion of health and well being in the patient can be directly and indirectly catered by the application of the humanistic model in the healthcare system. As the healthcare professionals will be directed towards the individual assessment of the patients with consideration of their physical and psychological well being, a strong interpersonal relationship can be developed that will assist in the delivery of patient centered care and practice of cultural safety (Cusack, 2018).

As by the application of this model, the nurses will be able to deliver better care to the patients. The moral considerations associated with the application of the model is based on reason and the notion of well being and suggests uptake of practices that can assist well being in the individual. The moral ethic of the humanistic model can assist in direct the actions of the healthcare professionals for beneficence and non malevolence and therefore assure high quality patient care (Crown et al., 2019). The ethical and moral considerations in healthcare practice are also governed and regulated by the litigation to prevent ethical breaches and promote safe care practices. The nurses must deliver care in consideration with cultural safety, beneficence, non malevolence and autonomy. Breach in the ethical code of conduct by healthcare professionals can lead to legal actions and abortion of the professional contract.

Severe implications may also include the cancellation of the license of the healthcare professional. The humanistic model is comprehensive and therefore assures that the individual under care must be treated with justice with special adherence to patient’s autonomy and by promoting a person centered approach in healthcare (Cusack, 2018). Therefore, the application of this model can also assure a decrement in the incidences of the ethical breach in the healthcare setting by the promotion of inclusive thinking associated with both, physical and the psychological needs of the patient. The core purpose of providing patient centered care in nursing adhered to providing quality care to the patients in consideration of their personal beliefs and demands that can be essentially met and the essential patient care can be provided. By inculcating and applying the humanistic model, healthcare professionals can be trained to be more empathetic and accepting that will enhance inclusivity and their participation in the community and assist the healthcare professionals in provide complete care (Crown et al., 2019).

This paper summarizes different models that have been applied in the process of learning and their core principles that are foundational for their application. Further, this paper also summarizes the application of the humanistic model in the healthcare system and relates it to be an essential structure that can enhance the provision of person centered care in the healthcare system. This essay asserts that the fundamentals associated with the humanistic model can be highly motivational and help patients develop a positive outlook in cases of chronic illnesses, palliative care, and other healthcare requirements. Further, limitations and barriers associated with the application of this model have also been discussed. Lack of empirical evidence to determine the success rate of application of this model and a generalized concept of achieving well being in all the individuals by this model has been largely called unrealistic. Further, the model does not follow an objective approach and therefore can affect the medical decisions in a healthcare system and give rise to dilemmas.

This model has also been evaluated against the ethical, moral and legal dimensions of the healthcare system and it has been asserted that by the application of this model, a person centered care can be achieved by high efficiency as the model nurtures an individualistic approach and can be used to inculcate empathy. Further, the model can provide a means of developing strong interpersonal relationships with the patients and provide culturally safe care by the development of cultural competence in healthcare professionals. Therefore, it can be summarized that the application of the humanistic learning model in the healthcare is highly beneficial as it will help develop a highly personalized, comprehensive care system in healthcare systems that demand strong psychological support and care to promote and health and well being in the patients.

References for Contemporary Health Education 

Bai, X., Lou, T., Jiang, Z., & Guo, J. (2017). Construction of theory model of nursing humanistic care based on Confucianism. Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing, 33(20), 1563-1566.

Basu, S., Landon, B. E., Williams, J. W., Bitton, A., Song, Z., & Phillips, R. S. (2017). Behavioral health integration into primary care: A microsimulation of financial implications for practices. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 32(12), 1330-1341.

Brousseau, S., & Cara, C. M. (2017). A humanistic caring quality of work life model in nursing administration based on Watson’s philosophy. International Journal of Human Caring, 21(1), 2-8.

Bryce, J., Foley, E., & Reeves, J. (2017). Conduct most becoming. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 25(6), 25.

Cara, C., Gauvin-Lepage, J., Lefebvre, H., Létourneau, D., Alderson, M., Larue, C., ... & Roy, M. (2016). The “Humanistic Model of Nursing Care–UdeM”: An innovative and pragmatic perspective. Recherche enSoinsInfirmiers, (2), 20-31.

Cara, C., O’Reilly, L., & Delmas, P. (2018). Feasibility, acceptability, and benefits of a humanistic educational intervention: A qualitative secondary analysis of two datasets (Quebec and Switzerland). International Journal for Human Caring, 22(3), 98-114.

Cusack, L. (2018). Changes to code of conduct and code of ethics new code of conduct for midwives now in effect for all midwives. Australian Midwifery News, 18(1), 14.

Di Vesta, F. J. (2017). Applications of cognitive psychology to education. In The future of educational psychology (pp. 37-73). United Kingdom: Routledge.

Dickison, P., Haerling, K. A., & Lasater, K. (2019). Integrating the national council of state boards of nursing clinical judgment model into nursing educational frameworks. Journal of Nursing Education, 58(2), 72-78.

Jian, L. I., Zhou, L., &Xuehua, L. I. (2017). Construction of humanistic care ability index system for neonatal intensive care unit nurses. Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing, 33(25), 1980-1984.

Karpetis, G., &Athanasiou, E. (2017). Training fieldwork supervisors of social work students at a South European University: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a relational psychodynamic model. Journal of Social Work Practice, 31(1), 37-49.

Kruse, O., León, I. T., Stalder, T., Stark, R., &Klucken, T. (2018). Altered reward learning and hippocampal connectivity following psychosocial stress. NeuroImage, 171, 15-25.

Létourneau, D., Goudreau, J., & Cara, C. (2020). Humanistic caring, a nursing competency: Modelling a metamorphosis from students to accomplished nurses. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences,33(25), 1980-1984.

Potter, T. C., Bryce, N. V., & Hartley, C. A. (2017). Cognitive components underpinning the development of model-based learning. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 272-280.

Purushotham, S., Meng, C., Che, Z., & Liu, Y. (2018). Benchmarking deep learning models on large healthcare datasets. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 83, 112-134.

Wang, S., Sun, S., Li, Z., Zhang, R., & Xu, J. (2017). Accurate de novo prediction of protein contact map by ultra-deep learning model. PLoSComputational Biology, 13(1), e1005324.

Wood, W., &Rünger, D. (2016). Psychology of habit. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 289-314.

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