Table of Contents
Appraisal of two strategic approaches from the five strategies identified in the World Health Organization Framework
Prioritizing and applying the associated policy options and interventions to optimise quality improvement in health service.
The Framework on integrated, people-centred health services' has been developed by World Health Organisation (WHO) in the year 2016 (World Health Organiation, 2020). There are five strategic approaches suggested by WHO which are intended to create influence on different levels of health care services delivered to the communities, individuals and their families. The current study will focus on evaluation or appraisal of two such strategies such as “empowering and engaging people and communities” and “Coordinating services within and across sectors” among them and in planning of application of the strategies into intervention and quality improvement of the healthcare services in a setting.
Strategy 1: Empowering and engaging people and communities
The first strategy described the WHO is empowering and engaging people and communities into the service setting by providing the opportunity, resources and skills are needed to be advocated by the users for a reformed health system. As per the views of Demaio et al., (2014), with the help of collaborative care approaches healthcare outcomes can be improved. Considering the same ideation, World Health Organisation has indicated that clinical outcomes can be made better through co-production of care. Engagement of the informal carers and reaching to the underserved marginalised people is required to be incorporated into the care approach. This is more effective especially in chronic and non-communicable diseases where the help seekers and his or her family members are required to engage in active participation. The reciprocation between the clinical experts and non-clinical people has been believed to provide more effectiveness of intervention of the health issues.
Strategy 4: Coordinating services within and across sectors
The second strategy suggested by WHO to apply in the health care setting is Coordinating services within and across sectors. It is believed that the greater engagement and coordination of the different sectors will enable to maintain continuity in the care service (World Health Organization, 2019). Additionally, coordination between the health programs and providers is required to be achieved by link the informational, administrative and funding gaps between levels of care and providers. Along with this, coordination across the sectors is highly important such as tie ups between education, finance, social services and others will ensure rapid response to the crisis situation. The intersectional actions to serve the community will help in address the social determinants of health. This in turn will lead to optimize the limited resources, at times through collaboration between the private sectors.
Application of strategy 1 policy options and interventions
As mentioned by Sawrikar & Muir (2018), the help seekers and his or her families are required to be well aware of the disease, prognosis, medication, treatment process and other related factors which provide readiness to the healthcare process. Apart from that, the individual, family members of the care seekers and other associated people are required to develop similar goals through maintaining health equity. Aspects such as informed consent, sharing of care user information and navigating the health system are critical components when looking towards driving positive outcomes in a health setting. In this regard, regular consultations with the families of the care users and constructively immersing them in the process of recovery are extremely important to further extend the effectiveness of the health care system.
Engaging the communities and empowering them are believed to have a greater impact on the advocacy of the people in voicing their needs and demands. Ozano et al., (2018) mentioned that, most of the time designing the community health services becomes inadequate and unsuccessful as they are planned and developed without considering the training needs and demands of the informal carers. In the health care setting, community members can be selected and trained regarding how to identify the care needs of the community people and deliver services to them. A network is needed to be built through which the community people can seek required assistance and care (Jones et al., 2019). For instance, a particular community may provide deep insight on the physical environment based on which the care providers may collaborate with the local authority to plan services for them. On the other hand, the daily sufferings of community people slowing down their health progress can also be addressed through this.
Application of strategy 4 policy options and interventions
The forth strategy includes the policy options and intervention tactics that aims at achieving coordination among the involved sectors. Considering the same, referral and counter referral systems will be developed through which care seekers can be transferred into primary care from a specialised care and vice versa (Culebro, Méndez & Cruz, 2019). In order to effectively manage the cases and improve the care transition, ranging from care facilities to the younger patients along with the older patients. Along with this, a team based care approach will be developed through which networks between regional and district based health care services can be coordinated. Incentives can also be designed for the care providers as a reward for maintaining coordination throughout the services (Caldwell, Roehrich & George, 2017). For instance, providing care support at an unusual time. All policies developed will prioritise the health of the care seekers. Moreover, within the modern health system, both the traditional and complementary approaches will be taken into consideration for increasing coordination through which better preparedness to the crisis situation can be achieved.
In conclusion, it can be stated that both the strategies discussed above are taken into consideration to improve health outcomes of individuals, their family members as well as the community members. The first strategy discussed is mainly devoted to improve the health outcomes of individuals by empowering and engaging them and their families into healthcare services. On the other hand, the second strategy is aimed to engaging and creating bridge between the gap of services of different sectors such as covering the barriers related to finance, health, education, and increasing the primary care based approach. Maintaining coordination across the sectors is considered to be effective in case of achieving high continuity in the services offered.
Caldwell, N. D., Roehrich, J. K., & George, G. (2017). Social value creation and relational coordination in public‐private collaborations. Journal of Management Studies, 54(6), 906-928.
Culebro, J., Méndez, B., & Cruz, P. (2019). COORDINATION AND REGULATION IN CRISIS MANAGEMENT. RESPONSE OF THE HEALTH SECTOR TO DISASTERS. THE CASE OF THE 2017 EARTHQUAKE IN MEXICO CITY. International Public Management Review, 19(2).
Demaio, A. R., Nielsen, K. K., Tersbøl, B. P., Kallestrup, P., & Meyrowitsch, D. W. (2014). Primary Health Care: a strategic framework for the prevention and control of chronic non-communicable disease. Global health action, 7(1), 24504.
Jones, D., Ballard, J., Dyson, R., Macbeth, P., Lyle, D., Sunny, P., ... & Sharma, I. (2019). A community engaged primary healthcare strategy to address rural school student inequities: a descriptive paper. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 20.
Ozano, K., Simkhada, P., Thann, K., & Khatri, R. (2018). Improving local health through community health workers in Cambodia: challenges and solutions. Human resources for health, 16(1), 2.
Sawrikar, P., & Muir, K. (2018). Toward a family-oriented treatment approach for consumers and carers of mental illness. International Journal of Mental Health, 47(2), 158-183.
World Health Organiation. (2020). WHO Framework on integrated people-centred health services. Retrieved 7 August 2020, from https://www.who.int/servicedeliverysafety/areas/people-centred-care/en/
World Health Organization. (2019). Improving healthcare quality in Europe: Characteristics, effectiveness and implementation of different strategies. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.
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