In pregnant females, the heart produces extra blood that is pumped and circulated throughout the body, and the blood volume in a pregnant female is increased to 45 % (Guedes-Martins 2016). It is found that in such females the left ventricle becomes larger and thicker; this allows the heart to work extra hard to support the additional blood volume in the body (Sava, March &Pepine 2016). A hormone that causes increased retention of water in the body is called vasopressin, this hormone is released by the pregnant females at high levels. This results in an increase in blood water volume, cardiac output, diastolic volume, and blood pressure (Sava et al. 2016). Moreover, vasopressin as an anti-diuretic hormone constricts the blood vessels and leads to high arterial pressure (Braunthal&Brateanu 2019). All these factors cause high blood pressure that leads to hypertension. According to Tucker andMahajan (2017), the anatomy of blood vessels states that it is made up of 3 layers: adventitia, tunica and muscular tissue (from outer to inner); the walls are made up of endothelial cells and are separated by the basal lamina. These carry blood that contains nutrients and oxygen to various parts of the body.
According to Braunthal et al. (2019), the potential causes of hypertension during pregnancy are as follows:
According to Ankumah and Sibai (2017), the risk factors associated with this condition are as follows:
According to Chahine and Sibai(2019), the complications with fetal outcomes of this condition if it isuncontrolled are as follows:
According to Chahine et al. (2019), this serious condition can be managed effectively and the unexpected results or outcomes can be prevented with the help of the following methods or approaches:
Ankumah, N A E &Sibai, B M 2017, ‘Chronic hypertension in pregnancy: Diagnosis, management, and outcomes’, Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp.206-214, doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000255
Braunthal, S &Brateanu, A 2019, ‘Hypertension in pregnancy: Pathophysiology and treatment’, SAGE Open Medicine, vol. 7, pp.2050312119843700, doi:10.1177%2F2050312119843700
Centre for disease control and prevention 2020, ‘High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy’, figure, viewed 5Octuber 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/pregnancy.htm
Chahine, K M and Sibai, B M 2019, ‘Chronic hypertension in pregnancy: New concepts for classification and management’, American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 36, no. 02, pp.161-168, doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1666976
Guedes-Martins, L 2016, ‘Chronic hypertension & pregnancy’, Hypertension: From basic research to clinical practice, pp. 395-407, Springer, Cham, doi: 10.1007/5584_2016_81
Lu, Y, Chen, R, Cai, J, Huang, Z & Yuan, H 2018, ‘The management of hypertension in women planning for pregnancy’, British Medical Bulletin, vol. 128, no. 1, pp.75-84, doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldy035
National Blood, Lung and Heart Institute 2019, ‘Chronic hypertension in pregnancy: To treat or not to treat’, figure, viewed 5Octuber 2020, https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/news/2019/chronic-hypertension-pregnancy-treat-or-not-treat
Podymow, T & August, P 2017, ‘New evidence in the management of chronic hypertension in pregnancy’, Seminars in Nephrology, vol.37, no. 4, pp. 398-403, doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2017.05.012
Sava, R I, March, K L &Pepine, C J 2018, ‘Hypertension in pregnancy: Taking cues from pathophysiology for clinical practice’, Clinical Cardiology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp.220-227, doi:10.1002/clc.22892
Tucker, W D & Mahajan, K 2017,‘Anatomy, blood vessels, Europe PMC, https://europepmc.org/article/nbk/nbk470401
Webster, K, Fishburn, S, Maresh, M, Findlay, S C & Chappell, L C 2019, ‘Diagnosis and management of hypertension in pregnancy: Summary of updated NICE guidance’, TheBMJ, vol. 366, pp.l5119, doi: 10.1136/bmj.l5119
Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help
Proofreading and Editing$9.00Per Page
Consultation with Expert$35.00Per Hour
Live Session 1-on-1$40.00Per 30 min.
Doing your Assignment with our resources is simple, take Expert assistance to ensure HD Grades. Here you Go....
My Assignment Services acknowledges the academic integrity guidelines prescribed as per Australian Universities to ensure that the services, sample material, and study resources available on our website, in no way are utilised to commit academic misconduct of any type. All users of our services must adhere to and affirm acceptance of all conditions elucidated in our policy document on academic integrity.