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Q1- (i)- Thermoregulation is the self-regulatory mechanism of the body to keep the body temperature normal, in accordance with the environmental temperature. However, the normal body temperature might not change that much with the aging of the person. With the advancing age, the tendency of the body to be able to control the body temperature might get difficult. An elderly individual might take twice the time longer than a younger person, in order to get the body temperature back to normal. Shivering and peripheral vasodilation can be deemed as an example of the involuntary temperature regulation mechanism of the body (Fu 2016, pp. 189-200). This tendency to not being able to maintain body temperature usually reduces after the age of 50 years.
As the age progresses not only the blood vessels get more and more dilated, the blood circulation also impedes speed as compared to a younger individual. The fat deposit beneath the skin layer plays a vital role in temperature regulation. This body fat gets reduced and decreases considerably in amount, making it difficult for the body to stay warm on its own (Xiong 2019, pp. 117-122).
(ii)- For maintaining thermoregulation for Katherine her body might make use of three main mechanisms as follow:
Q2- (i)- Fracture can be deemed as a discontinuity of the structure of the bone cortex (Vennin 2017, pp. 233-242). It might also bring about an injury to the surrounding tissues of the particular joint at which the fracture has occurred. Immediately after the fracture the healing process begins and it is mainly divided into four different stages as follow:
However, in older patients, the process can be a little delayed. These age-related changes might hamper the healing process of the bone. The outcomes can be in the form of delayed healing and increased morbidity.
(ii)- The three main factors that may have contributed to Katherine getting easy fracture after falling can be as follow:
Q3- (i)- The two main functions of bile are digestion and absorption.
(ii)- The ability of the liver to metabolize various substances, let alone bile can reduce with the aging process. Also, there can be few drugs that might not get inactivated quickly in elderlies, as they might get in their younger counterparts. With the advancing age, the liver might also not be able to withstand the stress it is being subjected to, leading to the reduced bile production in the body. With reduced bile production the mechanism of digestion, absorption, and elimination can also alter. Due to insufficient excretion of toxins out of the body, there can be damage to the other organs. The repair process also slows down with the increasing age. Due to reduced or hampered bile production, the person might also develop gallstones (Hegyi 2018, pp. 1983-2023). Patients can also develop drug-induced cholestasis. This can evidently lead to drug toxicity in severe cases. The patient might have symptoms such as high-grade fever due to infection and chest palpitations or generalized discomfort due to reduced digestion as well as absorption.
Q4- Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common deficiencies observed in elderlies, especially after the age of 60 and above. Females are more affected by this deficiency as compared to their male counterparts. Osteoporosis and vitamin D also has a direct correlation in elderlies, in terms of depreciating values. Vitamin D can also be deemed as the most effective and appropriate treatment method for elder individuals (Hill 2017, pp. 89-95). With the lack of exposure of sunlight, as given in our case scenario, as Katherine stays in the home only, there are greater chances of developing vitamin D deficiency. It is also impossible to compensate for the levels of vitamin D through nutritional resources only. There is always the dire need for additional supplements required for treatment purposes.
It is also vital for the elderly to have a good intake of calcium to help maintain bone strength and keep the bones healthy and intact. Intake of calcium is also important in reducing the chances of fracture in the patient. It also enhances the process of bone mineralization, bone formation, and healing of microfracture. Calcium intake is also important for Katherine for enhancing bone mineral deficiency and thus, lowering the risk of osteoporosis and its harmful effects on the patient (Reid 2019, pp. 468-473). Calcium intake is also important for improving muscle action. It helps with the easy contractibility and relaxation of the muscles. It is also important to promote the strength of muscles to support the joints and thus, promoting balance and coordination.
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