Sustainable tourism is intended to ensure that development is a positive experience for the tourism companies, the local people and the tourists. Sustainable tourism requires efforts from the national level. The following report lays prominence on the key issues facing sustainable tourism and barricading the operations. The key issues discussed are poverty alleviation, climate change and exploitation of wildlife. The findings state that there is an insistent requirement to address these issues in order to improve tourism. The recommendations state that there is a need to facilitate employment diversification in tourism at a local level can be beneficial in reducing the vulnerability of the people suffering from poverty. Another recommendation is the requirement of monetary funds for WBE. Recommendation for the issue of climate change is ‘emissions management frameworks’ for maintaining a continual advisory on carbon offsets for the operators.
Role and impact of different stakeholders.
Role of WTO and CST.
Need of government to support poor tourism..
Role of the tourism industry players in poverty alleviation.
Need for local communities to be involved in tourism..
Role and influence on different stakeholders.
Role of IPCC..
Government support for tackling climate change.
Role of tourism industry players in managing the carbon emissions issue.
Need for amalgamation of the local communities.
Addressing wildlife exploitation in tourism..
Role and influence on different stakeholders.
Role of UNWTO..
Government support for addressing the issue.
Role of industry players.
Need for integration with the local communities.
Sustainable tourism is a concept wherein the tourism is amalgamated with making a positive influence on the economy, society and environment (Edgell Sr, 2019). It is basically an industry which is committed to ensuring that minimal impact is posed on the local culture or environment while generating the employment and profit opportunities for the local people, however, sustainable tourism is barricaded by different contemporary issues and these challenges are related to priorities in terms of the national economic policy, environmental issues, the structure of the public administration, over-commercialization and many more. Author Gkoumas (2019) has defined sustainable tourism as a form of tourism which apart from meeting the needs of the tourists, host communities and industries also does not compromise the needs of the future generations and minimises the exploitation of the environment and other economic resources (Boley, McGehee & Hammett, 2017). This assessment is an extensive analysis of literary pieces for addressing the impact of contemporary issues on the nature of sustainable tourism.
It elaborates its impact on the different stakeholders and the management approaches. The key contemporary issues that are impacting sustainable tourism are poverty alleviation, climate change and carbon emissions and exploitation of animals in tourism and its negative consequences. The four key issues and impact on sustainable tourism is elaborated in the assessment highlighting the role and impact on different stakeholders, the role of authoritative bodies, communities and industry players. This assessment is segmented into six key sections, the preliminary section discusses the poverty alleviation. The following section emphasizes on climate change. The third section elaborates the exploitation of animals in tourism and its adversative consequences. The findings section discusses the overall findings of the literature review. The concluding section highlights the key underpinnings of the assessment. The recommendations section proposes a valid set of recommendations for addressing the issues proposed in the report.
The Deng, Zeng & Xiao (2017) have discussed that the tourism industry has unremittingly grown and has become an integral part of individuals as it is looked upon as leisure and relaxing experience. However, it has not benefited up to the expected degree for poor households. Countries with a high poverty rate are Tanzania with 55.1 per cent poverty rate and 66.8 per cent poverty rate in Tajikistan (Ravallion, Himelein & Beegle, 2016). In Tajikistan, the poverty alleviation strategies are being adopted relied on the International monetary fund. The National Development Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan safeguards to compliment the future renewable resources in the field of tourism by developing welfare and development opportunities. The State Committee of Investment and State Property Management in the country has also lead emphasis on designing a map which places prominence on the tourism industry in terms of investment for providing employment opportunities to the poor people and makes sure that the poverty reduction strategies are implemented. The village tourism programs are introduced in the Kilimanjaro in Tanzania (Ravallion, Himelein & Beegle, 2016). The country is promoting cultural tourism for the rural sectors so that local people can indulge in social progress and have better access to health facilities and education and also develop their professional knowledge and skills.
For proper implementation of pro-poor tourism, it is essential that different stakeholders are effectively integrated for maximizing the potential and alleviating poverty (Weaver, Tang & Zhao, 2020). Stakeholders must be involved in pro-poor tourism in such a way that the local capacity is elevated and better decision-making is done. The macro stakeholders ensure that the diversity of actions involving marketing, policy development, planning and investment is done in an effective custom (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2018). Apart from the civil society and the private sectors, the key stakeholders involved in pro-poor tourism are the government bodies who are responsible for advocating partnership and enhancing the economic opportunities for poor people. They ensure the social environment impact is improved, capacity building, infrastructure, a provision of the basic services and empowerment is done. According to Deng, Zeng & Xiao (2017), the macro stakeholder plays an imperative role in enhancing the infrastructure which forms a basic need to prepare tourism. In Tanzania, the Community Tourism Programme is an evaluator of the community tourism aimed at poverty alleviation (Ravallion, Himelein & Beegle, 2016). The Other stakeholders involved are national parks, hotels, airlines and local communities. The Travel and Tourism Advisory Board of United States and Committee on Tourism and Sustainability (CST) under UNWTO plays a critical role in acting as an advisory body to the secretary of commerce in terms of sustainable tourism in the country (Johnson, Mayrand & Paquin, 2016).
The CST is aimed at monitoring the implementation of different programs under the sustainable development of tourism. It is also known for assisting the secretariat in implementation of different recommendations to the Executive Council and different bodies of the organisation. The board makes sure that the strengthening of small tourism enterprises and initiatives is done. The collective income of different organisations is also considered as a source of investment funding. In the annual report of the year 2015, WTO focused on effective resource management for reducing poverty and ensuring inclusive growth (Johnson, Mayrand & Paquin, 2016). It has articulated different objectives which are aimed at promoting homogeneity and proper design and implementation of local tourism. The WTO is making efforts to catalyse the private and public sector innovation collaboratively with the UNCTAD for eliminating poverty.
The government is laying emphasis on increasing the tourist length of stay, developing complementary products and handling the planning and infrastructure, reducing seasonality, providing effective training and employment, increasing the visitor expenditure and spreading the benefits of tourism across different geographic regions so that the poor households can effectively gain the benefit. As a part of sustainable tourism, the government of different countries are coming together to facilitate local community access to the market of tourism and maximize the linkages by minimising the overall leakages (Johnson, Mayrand & Paquin, 2016). The government of South Africa has made use of government policy for encouraging different private sectors for adopting production practices and monitoring and reporting the same. Similarly, in Nepal, all the potential local communities and the tour operators have increased the participation in tourism henceforth, contributing to poverty alleviation. WTO has launched a project known as ST-EP which has its focus on re-incentivizing sustainable Tourism for ecological, social and economic perspective and hence, eliminating poverty in the poorest countries especially the LCDs (Johnson, Mayrand & Paquin, 2016).
The industry players play a cardinal role in the tourism sector in ensuring that sustainability is maintained. Some of the key tourism industry players are national parks, hotels, airlines and local communities. They acknowledge that this sector is a labour-intensive one and hence, it is crucial that they develop a value-chain approach and ensure that the leakages are reduced (Johnson, Mayrand & Paquin, 2016). They can promote pro-poor strategies and communicate the same to the local communities at the ground level and also provide virtuous employment prospects.
Local communities act as genuine and moral stakeholders in this industry. They play an integral role in the enforcement of the rules and regulations in the context of sustainable tourism (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2018). Involving the local communities will not only cultivate their support but will also benefit them in monetary and social aspects. It will contribute to the overall standard of living.
Climate change is destabilizing the ecosystems and is also contributing to the deflation of tourism patronage. It is becoming a key hurdle in the sustainable tourism and is causing a shift in the tourist destinations and is also contributing to the migration of the wildlife and deaths (Hanna, Scarles, Cohen & Adams, 2016). The extent of adversity of climate change on tourism is alleviating in different countries this issue is excessive in plateau state in Nigeria. Climate change is resulting in flooding of the eco destinations and is significantly increasing the cost of running the tourism sectors. In some destinations, it is also adversely impacting sighting games and has also hindered the fixed dates of the cultural events. It is resulting in cultural, economic and environmental challenges in sustainable tourism.
The major groups of stakeholders involved in sustainable tourism for tackling climate change and its adversative impacts are experts in suppliers, government departments, quasi-government organisations, tourism organisations, tourism-oriented non-governmental organisations and many more. The macro stakeholders are the government departments and the board of climate change which are responsible for managing tourism and its interface with climate change.
IPCC being and intergovernmental panel on climate change is aimed at providing the world with scientific, relevant and objective information regarding the understanding of climate change and its impact on human health, flora and fauna. It is effectively participating in sustainable tourism and addresses the requirement of tourism's alignment with sustainability. The fifth assessment report of IPCC has discussed the requirement of adaptation and mitigation of the future of tourism and it’s positioning in AR5 for strengthening the recognition of trans-boundary influence (Scott, Hall & Gössling, 2016). IPCC is computerized modelling climate change using IPCC indicators and its impact on biodiversity and eco-tourism (Hanna, Scarles, Cohen & Adams, 2016).
Federal governments are taking strict actions for supporting the fundamental climate change research and development for determining the comprehensive approach. New Zealand Climate Change Program is intended to make sure that a resilient future of tourism is ensured. Well-funded lobby by IPCC is engaging with the issue and is also indulging with a team of different scientists and political groups for representing the highest scientific standards in terms of reliability and validity of the climate change framework in sustainable tourism (Scott, Hall & Gössling, 2016).
The industry players such as the resorts and hotels are also adjusting to that devastating impact of climate change and they are making sure to adjust considering the rising sea levels or any other relevant threat by the floodwalls. The transportation sector is also adopting strategies according to tourism. Sustainable tourism in terms of the use of green fuels is also used so that fewer carbon emissions are made (Hanna, Scarles, Cohen & Adams, 2016). However, there is a need to ensure that transportation is made more oriented towards the uses of green fuel to contribute to the sustainable tourism and also cultivate the financial sustainability of the operators (Buckley, 2012).
Collaborating with the local community can be helpful in addressing sustainability issues such as biodiversity protection and air quality towards a better future (Lee, 2013). This will also be helpful in local spatial concentrations management (Scott, Hall & Gössling, 2016). Integrating with the stakeholders at the ground level will be beneficial in alleviating local air pollution problems and laying emphasis on the alternative energy-based transportation systems and also appropriate habitat restoration by tree planting.
Tourism can be detrimental and destructive for the wildlife ecosystem as it may cause a depreciation in the population of the animals and ultimately to the degradation of the habitats. The tourism activities interfere with the welfare of the wildlife animals which may not cause a constructive impact on their lives (Scheyvens & Hughes, 2019). Sustainable tourism is intended to make sure that equilibrium is maintained in the natural habitats of the fauna, the ecological environment and the humans. However, due to excessive exploitation of the wildlife and the captive wildlife tourism, animals and their natural habitats are being disturbed and frightened which is also poses adverse impact in their breeding (Scheyvens & Hughes, 2019).
Different micro-level stakeholders are involved in ensuring the safety and preservation of the habitat of the wildlife. They are tour operators, traditional owners, residence, resort, staff members and the QPWS staff. The WTO is an integral stakeholder in wildlife tourism and in the global code of ethics for tourism and raises voice against the unethical behaviour with the wildlife animals (Avila-Foucat & Rodríguez-Robayo, 2018). The stakeholders in this industry to ensure that the existing governmental mechanism representing the wildlife rights are implemented at the ground level and any sort of glitch is immediately reported to the statutory body.
The UNWTO ensures safeguarding conservation and protection of wildlife in the tourism sector. It maintains the sustainable tourism by protecting wildlife by ensuring that the illegal poaching and trafficking of the wildlife is prohibited as it may put the animals at the richness of risk (Avila-Foucat & Rodríguez-Robayo, 2018). Though the financial share collected via wildlife tourism is significant but at the national parks and sanctuaries, it must be ensured that awareness about flora and fauna species is made and the comprehension of the ecological importance of wildlife is considered.
The governmental bodies ensure that surveying is done and information regarding the wildlife especially their growth and numbers in the tourism sectors are recorded for protecting their habitat (Avila-Foucat & Rodríguez-Robayo, 2018). Different regulations are enforced for protecting the forests and also delimiting the areas of natural habitats. The wildlife protection act 1972 is an integral statue that acts as a powerful legal framework for prohibition of hunting and poaching from the wildlife habitats as an activity in the tourism sector or any other domain (Avila-Foucat & Rodríguez-Robayo, 2018). The government has also passed the guidelines for making special arrangement for protecting the species that are endangered or limited in terms of number. Instructions are also imposed on exporting and importing of the wildlife products and severe punishment are charged for those indulging in this illegal activity.
National parks are the key industry players in the tourism sector as they ensure that the habitats of the wildlife are protected and a safe place is provided to the wildlife for breeding in surviving. National parks safeguard that the risk of becoming extinct of certain animal species is reduced and a landscape is provided to protect the habitat for a longer duration (Scheyvens & Hughes, 2019). Apart from generating an appreciable amount of financial income through tourism, the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries also play an integral role in society by communicating the significance of wildlife protection and preservation.
Endangering of wildlife in terms of their habitat, infrastructure and peaceful existence can be prevented by the local communities (Scheyvens & Hughes, 2019). With the increasing encroachment into wildlife habitat such as farmland, settlements cattle posts, the human-wildlife conflicts are increasing in the tourism sector henceforth, for sustainable tourism, it is essential that local communities are empowered to participate in increasing awareness about the local environments and cultures and conservation initiatives regarding the wildlife and offer good quality tourism in compliance with the market expectations.
The findings of the assessment reveal that there is an urgent requirement to address the contemporary issues barricading sustainable tourism. Adhering to the viewpoints of authors Ravallion, Himelein & Beegle (2016), the countries having the highest poverty rates are struggling with the issues if poverty alleviation is ultimately being reflected in the sustainable tourism initiatives. As highlighted in the assessment poverty alleviation is a critical issue in the countries where poverty is a key issue. On a global level, poverty is a key hurdle in the attainment of sustainable tourism. As a part of sustainable tourism, the government of different countries are coming together to facilitate local community access to the market of tourism and maximize the linkages by minimising the overall leakages. It is becoming a key intricacy in sustainable tourism and is resulting in the swing in the tourist destinations and is also resulting in the migration of wildlife and deaths. This issue is taken into control under the IPCC panel which ensures that the climate change does not barricade sustainability in tourism.
This assessment has maintained a fundamental theme of the key issues barricading sustainable tourism. It has effectually brought forward a clear picture of the urgent need of tackling with the above-mentioned issues. It has effectively elaborated its impact on the different stakeholders and the management approaches. The key contemporary issues that are impacting sustainable tourism are poverty alleviation, climate change and carbon emissions and exploitation of animals in tourism and its pessimistic outcomes. It is contingent from the essay that the due to disproportionate exploitation of the wildlife and the captive wildlife tourism, animals and their natural habitats are being disturbed. It needs to be addressed immediately.
On examining and issues and reviewing the findings, the following set of recommendations can be proposed:
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