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Table of Contents

Question 1.

Question 2.

Question 3.

Question 4.

Question 5.

Reference list

Foundations of Psychological Science - Question 1

Identification of a suitable design for the research is essential to get an appreciable and conclusive outcome. As per the idea of Cook (2015), the traditional research methodology includes the designs like quasi-experimental design, Cross-sectional correlational and differential design along with case-control and cross-sequential designs. In the case of scientific research, cross sectional study is done along with cohort study. On the other hand, quasi experimental design is applied for social studies and sociological research. Correlations always help in identification of relationships between the independent variables and dependent variables. In the case of this research, the application of cross sectional correlational design will be the best option. In this research, there are multiple variables associated which include, playing football, cognitive decline, adolescence, adulthood. Hence, correlational design will be the best option to identify the relationship between the dependent and independent variable.

Foundations of Psychological Science - Question 2

In the case of true experimental design, the analysis is done on the basis of true experimental data. As per the viewpoint of Torgerson & Torgerson (2016), this is one of the major factors, which helps to establish an idea worth evidential proof. However, in some cases, the experimentally obtained data contradicts the existing idea about the topic or subject of research. Hence, it can be analysed that this is one of the major drawbacks or disadvantages of this study. On the other hand, the application of randomisation in the study or in sampling is not allowed by quasi experimental design. Hence, the outcome or conclusion of the study gets biased which is often identified as unwanted by the researcher. In this case, the identification of the actual fact regarding the influence of football playing over the cognitive aptitude of the players needs to be identified. Hence, quasi experimental design is not that much effective. On the other hand, cross sectional study does not take much time for sampling and data collection. Moreover, the design is not costly for the conduction of the research (Bertizzolo et al. 2019). Hence, this is the major advantage for which the study has been adopted. However. The differential study does not promote the establishment of relationships between the variables. This is the majirfactor for which cross sectional differential design will not be included for this research. The combination of longitudinal and cross sectional design often invokes major complexity to identify the conclusion. Hence this is one of the major drawbacks of cross sequential study. The case control study is all about the comparison between the outcomes of two sets of experiment or data. This invokes cost and time burden. This is the major disadvantage for which this is needed to be rejected for this study.

Foundations of Psychological Science - Question 3

In the provide sets, design #5 should be matched with implementation #3. On the other hand, design # 4 should be matched with implementation #2. The design #1 is needed to be matched with implementation #6. On the other hand, design #6 should be aligned with implementation #4. Design #3 should be linked with implementation #5 and design #2with implementation #1is needed to be aligned.

Foundations of Psychological Science - Question 4

Implementation 3should be linked with hypothesis 5 and implementation 4 is with hypothesis 2. Implementation 5 should be linked with hypothesis 1 and implementation 1with 3. Implementation b2 should be linked with hypothesis 4. The identification of the alternative hypothesis has been done as per the implementation statement provided in the previous question.

Foundations of Psychological Science - Question 5





Adolescent footballers are more likely to develop cognitive decline in adulthood if they are vulnerable to brain injuries.




Playing football in adolescence can cause concussive injuries that accumulate over time and lead to cognitive decline.




Playing football during adolescence increases risk of developing cognitive decline later in life.




FPQ is positively associated with SCD-Q by way of increased GSC.




Adolescent footballers are at greater risk of developing cognitive decline in adulthood than adolescents who do not play football, but only if they have suffered at least one serious concussive injury while playing football.




Table 1: Graded Symptom Checklist

References for Foundations of Psychological Science

Bertizzolo, L., Bossuyt, P., Atal, I., Ravaud, P., & Dechartres, A. (2019). Disagreements in risk of bias assessment for randomised controlled trials included in more than one Cochrane systematic reviews: a research on research study using cross-sectional design. BMJ open9(4), e028382.

Cook, T. D. (2015). Quasi‐experimental design. Retrieved from

Torgerson, C. J., & Torgerson, D. J. (2016). ‘True’experimental Ddesigns’. The BERA/SAGE Handbook of Educational Research, 416.

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