Introduction to Psychology: Fundamentals of Human Behaviour

Abstract on Curiosity Enhancement Aid in Learning

The concept of curiosity has been closely intertwined in pedagogy, biology, and psychology. Curiosity has been associated with the processes of learning and memory retention. Several biological assessments and studies that focus on neurological behaviour identify that curiosity is associated with the hippocampal region of the brain and has a conclusive impact on information retention. This idea has been argued by scientists who assert that the process of memory creation and recall are highly different. However, through biological as well as behavioural studies, it has been evidenced that curiosity not only enhances the information retention but also spikes engagement. Curiosity, it has been classified into various forms and determines the experiences and the ability to recall in the individuals. A significant impact of visual curiosity has been asserted along with factors like exposure, uncertainly induced by the experience, and overall innate leaning towards information. Through multiple studies, it has been conclusively evidenced that curiosity enhancement aids in learning and information retention.

Introduction to Curiosity Enhancement Aid in Learning

Memory enhancement and information retention have been one of the key aspects of pedagogy resulting in several notions being applied in amalgamation with focus on how information retention can be enhanced in the individuals (Wlodkowski & Ginsberg, 2017). Several factors control the factors associated with information retention in an individual. These factors include motivation to learn, inclination towards to topic, experience with the learning of the topic, along with several physical as well as psychological factors that determine the state of an individual (Stare et al., 2018). This essay will argue how curiosity enhancement aids in improving learning and retention of information in individuals through an evidence-based approach.

How Does Curiosity Work

“Curiosity” is defined as “pleasant motivational state involving the tendency to recognize and seek out novel and challenging information and experiences.” (Tyng et al., 2017) Curiosity has a significant impact on learning and can drive information retention in individuals. Neurological analysis has revealed that curiosity can make our brains more receptive towards learning and make the entire process of learning more enjoyable and effective (Wade & Kidd, 2019). High levels of uncertainty are associated with curiosity that transforms a receiver to a seeker who wishes to find answers. This also helps the individual to enhance the ability to recognize and recall and thereby significantly improve the retention of information in an individual (Markant et al., 2016). Seeking new information helps in developing experience out of information and thus helps in retention and further information perception in an individual. Curiosity has multiple impacts on how information is perceived by an individual. The impact of curiosity on information retention has been presented in both long term and short term time lapses (Wade & Kidd, 2019). Improved memory has been observed in both, immediate and delated memory tests by researches. The primary mode of action of curiosity in the process of memory enhancement and information retention has been associated with an increase in the attentional processes and consolidation. Biologically, the impact is seen at the hippocampus-dependent memory with PACE cycle completion (Gruber & Ranganath, 2019).

Information Retention and Curiosity

The initial studies that focused on the relationship in curiosity and memory retention were performed by Bull and Dizney in the year 1973 who focused on the identification of retention scores between the high and low curiosity groups (Wlodkowski & Ginsberg, 2017). The retention in curious individuals was significantly greater than the non-curious individuals and served as the primary evidence on how memory retention and information perception is linked with enhanced memory. The impact of curiosity on memory has been often countered and argued against (Stare et al., 2018). The primary argument that is present against the notion is that creation and recall of memories are two different biological processes where recalling of memory has a limited association with the curiosity (Gruber & Ranganath, 2019). However, this argument has been refuted against the behavioural patterns of human nature, first presented by Litman in 2005, who asserted that “we are most curious when we feel the need to recall something that we are close to remembering” (Tyng et al., 2017). This phenomenon is also identified as the tip of the tongue phenomenon. Advances have been made in how the memory and information are created, processed, and retained in the human brains and discussion over the role of curiosity in the same have also accelerated. Significant research illustrates how visual curiosity is highly impactful in the process of memory creation and information retention. A higher level of curiosity has been directly related to increased levels of perceived uncertainty and thus pushing a greater curiosity and memory retention in the individuals (Sujatha & Kavitha, 2018). Concepts of neurobiology that circumference information retention asserts that striatal activation, associated with curiosity plays a crucial role in recalling the information associated with experiences of sharing (van Schaik et al., 2019).

Forms and Nature of Curiosity and Its Impact on Learning

In terms of cognitive psychology, more than one form of curiosity exists in individuals. Perceptual curiosity is aroused through sensory factor where as epistemic curiosity is driven by the desire to learn new things (van Schaik et al., 2019). Thereby, information retention and recall can be intentional or unintentional based on possession of the nature of curiosity in an individual. Along with the notions of perceptual and epistemic curiosity, specific curiosity involves information-seeking specified to the particular topic (Sujatha & Kavitha, 2018). Certain individuals may also possess a diverse curiosity that involves a desire to learn about general information. The ability to recall and retain information is also affected by the ranked curiosity levels in an individual (Buheji, 2019). With items that are classified as high. Medium, to low curiosity levels. It is of critical consideration that these items are based on individualistic experiences and the perceived information of an individual. This gives rise to increased subjectivity in form of how curiosity can be measured as a direct covariable in association with information retention (Watson et al., 2018). Research shows that students when taught with the ignition of curiosity and with a created perception of uncertainty, the information is retained more effectively (Buheji, 2019). Higher curiosity is, therefore, evidently directly associated with better recollection in the individuals.

Conclusion on Curiosity Enhancement Aid in Learning

Curiosity is a dynamic experience that is highly individualistic in nature and often experienced by individuals. The notion of curiosity has been widely exploited in pedagogy for improvement in information retention and increased participation of the students. This essay presents an argument on how enhancement in curiosity is beneficial for individuals for information retention in learning. Multiple studies based on biology and psychology have evidenced that curiosity not only enhances the engagement of an individual but also promoted the ability to recall and thus results in better information retention in the individuals. This essay provides a succinct argument under the same light using an evidence based approach to favour the notion. In conclusion, the paper asserts that curiosity enhancement aids in learning and information retention

References for Curiosity Enhancement Aid in Learning

Buheji, M. (2019). Designing a curious life. Author House. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Md-VDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT8&dq=curiosity+enhancement+aids+in+learning+and+information+retention&ots=YoN0KTxhyu&sig=NoHe6iR7hC4-5vHDwFKGrotTphA

Gruber, M. J., & Ranganath, C. (2019). How curiosity enhances hippocampus-dependent memory: The prediction, appraisal, curiosity, and exploration (PACE) framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 23(12), 1014-1025. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364661319302384

Markant, D. B., Ruggeri, A., Gureckis, T. M., & Xu, F. (2016). Enhanced memory as a common effect of active learning. Mind, Brain, and Education, 10(3), 142-152. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mbe.12117

Stare, C. J., Gruber, M. J., Nadel, L., Ranganath, C., & Gómez, R. L. (2018). Curiosity-driven memory enhancement persists over time but does not benefit from post-learning sleep. Cognitive neuroscience, 9(3-4), 100-115. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17588928.2018.1513399

Sujatha, R., & Kavitha, D. (2018). Learner retention in MOOC environment: Analyzing the role of motivation, self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness. International Journal of Education and Development Using ICT, 14(2). https://www.learntechlib.org/p/184685/

Tyng, C. M., Amin, H. U., Saad, M. N., & Malik, A. S. (2017). The influences of emotion on learning and memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1454. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01454/full?source=post_page---------------------------

van Schaik, C. P., Pradhan, G. R., & Tennie, C. (2019). Teaching and curiosity: Sequential drivers of cumulative cultural evolution in the hominin lineage. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73(1), 2. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00265-018-2610-7.pdf

Wade, S., & Kidd, C. (2019). The role of prior knowledge and curiosity in learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26(4), 1377-1387. https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13423-019-01598-6

Watson, L., Inan, I., Whitcomb, D., & Yigit, S. (2018). Educating for curiosity. The Moral Psychology of Curiosity, 293-309. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=peTaDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA293&dq=curiosity+enhancement+aids+in+learning+and+information+retention&ots=yXSjga4_wz&sig=7cGHvaZytyJo34YTjvSn-aWnLvQ

Wlodkowski, R. J., & Ginsberg, M. B. (2017). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: A comprehensive guide for teaching all adults. John Wiley & Sons. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=j_YtDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA9&dq=curiosity+enhancement+aids+in+learning+and+information+retention&ots=RHSYJRNzRo&sig=91mWI3B0g1rU9R1o7cijHcXSGaI

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