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Immunization is the process in which a person develops immunity against any kind of disease or the microbe that could be a reason for the inconvenience. immunization happens through the vaccines which lead to the entrance of weak or dead microbe in the body to produce antibodies (Rodríguez, Saldaña and Santillana 2019.).
As the vaccine is the dead or the weak form of the microbe against which the protection is need hence when it enters the body, the body starts to produce antibodies against that microbe. once the antibody is produced it remains for a long time and protects the body from the re-attack of the same disease in a stronger manner.
There are different types of immunization like (Vann, Jacobson, R.M., Coyne‐Beasley, Asafu‐Adjei, and Szilagyi 2018.)-
1) live attenuate - when the weak pathogen is introduced in the body and body learns to protect itself from the same in the future. eg- measles, rotavirus, etc
2)inactive vaccine - when the virus/bacteria is killed with chemical/heat and is introduced inside the body and body produce antibodies against that. eg-polio, hepatitis A
3)subunit/conjugate vaccine - when a special kind of protein/ carb is isolated from the pathogen and then introduced in the body. eg- hepatitis B, influenza.
4) Toxoid vaccine- some pathogen secretes harmful chemicals while entering the body therefore scientists have deactivated those toxins and then introduce them inside the body. eg- tetanus, Diptheria
There are no great side effects of the immunization as it has almost dead microbe just in purpose to produce antibody might leave the person in low fever, body ache, soreness, fatigue, temporary headache, etc. the person might feel a low fever around 38-39* c. redness, swelling, or skin irregularities can be seen in the region of the needle went in. mostly side effects are seen in the babies have they become unsettled and uneasy for a day or two. sometimes lumps are easily seen in the area, could stay for a month or less.
The eradicated or greatly reduced diseases to immunization are -
Rotavirus, Chickenpox, Mumps,
Diphtheria, Influenza, Tetanus, etc.
The different perspective of the safety of immunization are vaccines were developed for the purpose to protect the population from the diseases that spread In massive amount. vaccines are the results of several attempts for humanity by biology. vaccination is very important for the children/babies as they are very prone to the diseases (De Bruycker and Beyers, 2019.) their immune system has not that much power to directly fight with the diseases, therefore this immunization plays an important role in this. immunization has saved lives in several years. immunization provides the prevention against the diseases and prevention is better than cure.
Several anti-vaxxers oppose the vaccination or immunization due to several misconceptions about it(Lahouati, De Coucy, Sarlangue. and Cazenave,2020)-
1) the majority of the vaccinated population got disease is one of the arguments against the vaccination. although it is not true as vaccine people tend to get less affected by the outbreak of the disease in comparison to the non-vaccinated one.
2)anti-vaxxers believe that we can cure the disease with the better hygiene and nutrition and they do not want any vaccination for the prevention as the disease already started to disappear because of better hygiene and the sanitation. but they forget that better nutrition and antibiotics come hand in hand it's the result of both.
3)there are myths like vaccination can lead to the harmful side effects or the illnesses or can lead to the disease in itself which is very untrue as they are tried and tested then introduced which means they are 100% human safe.
Yes, the outbreak of the measles in united states is a legit example for the above views as it was said before the same about this disease too but when the outbreak happened only the vaccinated people recovered easily or didn’t get affected by the disease.
There are various medium to spread information or awareness about anything. there is print media, electronic media, social platforms and whatnot. it is the main profits of the media that it reaches to every possible person anyhow (Parah, Lee, Sheikh, and Bhat, 2018.).
Print Media - the print media spread information through the newspaper or the pamphlets or any other poster. this might be old fashioned but a strong medium as every house has a good supply of newspaper. This media has played a vital role since so long as the awareness through the posters/ newspaper/ pamphlets saying “go vaccinate ” or “prevention is better than cure ” are some of the effective ways how they conveyed the message for this issue.
Television- The television has evolved in several years from the boxes to the flat screen but its role in spreading awareness about any issues has never lost its value. its effect is huge, dramatic and largely unchallenged. because of the reachability .the videos promoting the vaccination by showing mother child care or parenthood care are the most famous and effective advertisement for this issue.
There are many misconceptions about the vaccine resistance but those are been successfully eradicated by the help of media. giving voice to the right information by spreading the awareness all over is one of the most advantageous help by the social media in the health cares. by highlighting the success of the vaccines number of times can lead to a huge impact on the population. Media can be a vital tool to provide factual, real information.
many initiatives have been taken by the governments to aware people about the immunization and to erase the misconceptions and spread the knowledge and took the help of creative ideas to do all those activities . to attract the people and try to literate them about the issue not to scare them by the serious or deadly advertisement because it would harm the person's psychological health which ultimately affects the immune system and leads to weak health (Simas, Munoz, Arregoces, and Larson, 2019.). the medium of using phrases like "protect your world- get vaccinated " this tries to convey the message that vaccination is important and helps to keep the person away from the diseases. themes songs are being created to make people aware of the disease. colours and symbols are given on an international level to the disease protections like a red colour ribbon to the AIDS, pink colour for breast cancer, etc.
these mediums are effective then it was thought as it just not only positively spread the information, it attracted the people to know more about it of all the ages as who does not like good attractive arts. these ways are very attracting to young age people. though it also eradicated the stigma of fear and pain attached to it . not only to the people who are not affected but also helped the people who are dealing with severe diseases like cancer, aids, tumours etc. it made them feel good too. therefore this strategy worked effectively and the communication is also very effective.
The information mainly derived from the trusted journals and the awareness letters issued by the organisations like WHO, medical associations and other reliable sources. the sources ensured that the people who took vaccination tend to be less a part of any disastrous outbreak of disease. which was a part of misconception broken by this factual knowledge. the statement that has been contradicted from the valid sources is the one where the immunization is also harmful to the health of the person. the Information was retrieved from the various personal blogs and articles but with the facts and guidelines issued by the WHO made it clear that it creates a small experience of discomfort like placebo effect to produce the antibodies inside the body. some implications are made without being asserted like in the mediums discussed above the government do not force anything on anyone but it was widely accepted and had a great impact on the population.it is trying to direct the consumers to the world of advertisement of any product as the product or anything is more visible to people tend to buy or get that product more often. No there is no problem with the implications.
there are many ways to know whether the source is reliable or not(Liberatore, 2018).
1) Accuracy- compare the information that is already known and the one in the sources as it is very necessary to verify the knowledge.
2) Authority- always check the author/publisher of the source. if the information is on the internet then try to verify it through the URL it got, name of the publisher or the copyrights.
3) Currency - the information should always be updated one. always check whether the information is updated or recent one or not. older resources are still useful but the recent one is more reliable to tell the best about anything.
4) Coverage - the information that has been obtained should be fulfilling all the criteria and the needs of the question the has been asked.
It’s hard to find the reliable source to extract information as we cannot rely on everything present on the internet but with right guidance and experience, one can easily start to differentiate between the knowledge they want. I will direct the first-year student to collect knowledge on this issue from the valid internet sources like the medical association page, the world health organization’s page or of some NGO’s that has been spreading awareness about this topic.
Dabanch, J., González, C., Cerda, J., Acevedo, J., Calvo, M., Díaz, E., Endeiza, M., Inostroza, J., Rodríguez, J., Saldaña, A. and Santillana, S., 2019. Chile’s National Advisory Committee on Immunization (CAVEI): Evidence-based recommendations for public policy decision-making on vaccines and immunization. Vaccine, 37(32), pp.4646-4650.
Vann, J.C.J., Jacobson, R.M., Coyne‐Beasley, T., Asafu‐Adjei, J.K. and Szilagyi, P.G., 2018.
De Bruycker, I. and Beyers, J., 2019. Lobbying strategies and success: Inside and outside lobbying in European Union legislative politics. European Political Science Review, 11(1), pp.57-74.
Lahouati, M., De Coucy, A., Sarlangue, J. and Cazanave, C., 2020. Spread of vaccine hesitancy in France: What about YouTube™?. Vaccine.
Loan, N.A., Hurrah, N.N., Parah, S.A., Lee, J.W., Sheikh, J.A. and Bhat, G.M., 2018. Secure and robust digital image watermarking using coefficient differencing and chaotic encryption. IEEE Access, 6, pp.19876-19897.
Simas, C., Munoz, N., Arregoces, L. and Larson, H.J., 2019. HPV vaccine confidence and cases of mass psychogenic illness following immunization in Carmen de Bolivar, Colombia. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 15(1), pp.163-166.
Liberatore, P., 2018. Belief integration and source reliability assessment. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 63, pp.87-143.
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