Health Sociology - Question 1

What insights do post-modernist perspectives provide and what might this mean for health practice?

In port-modernist, the real problem and relevant truth was identified and understood in different ways. The postmodernist elicits a unique perspective and thinking about the problems. Post-modernism believes that that community is the actual pathogen of health problems. The differences alleged by post-modernists create the burden of oppression nominal catalyst for the event of diseases between several ethics and social groups, which is dietary tendencies or hereditary. The perspective developed by postmodernists is that health care is a dynamic process in understanding problems relevant to health. As a result, traditional and non-traditional medical facilities are significantly increasing day by day. Hence the increasing demand led to the urgent requirement of developing new programs that are prevalent in areas of postmodernists, disease, and health (Weiss 2015)

Post-modernists have a different approach to disease and health as a cultural area. Moreover, the post-modernists are worried about the impact of implementing medical labels on the destruction of cultural standards. They believe that an individual’s personalities can be devalued by applying medical labels to other individual’s identities. This may result in loss of parental status, spousal status, etc. which in turn may lead to cancer condition. Moreover, some intellectuals have adopted this point while practice antiviral drugs to treat HIV, reporting out that HIV does not lead to AIDS.

Weiss, G.L., 2015. Sociology of health, healing, and illness. Routledge: London

Health Sociology - Question 2

Despite increases in funding, explain why in Australia, Indigenous health outcomes are still an issue? Provide examples to illustrate your argument.

To raise the funding for helping the sanitation of Australians indigenous societies, there has been a constant debate among funding communities. The government in its financial year of 2018-19, includes 160 million dollars for indigenous health out of which 10 million dollars was allocated to the Lovija institute. However, the budget was very slightly increased from the 2017-18 financial budgets. This rise was supposed people with substantial disabilities and a portion for people committing suicide due to financial problems. Despite constantly increased funds, the improvement in the health of indigenous societies is still underrated because of negligence and inequality. The low level of creativity in health services and the high cost of service delivery are the two central reasons for the government’s failure in achieving desired results (Arthur 2018). Moreover, increasing the indigenous population it is becoming difficult for the government to provide adequate services for this community. Besides these, the rate of chronic disorder including kidney failure, diabetes, and cardiovascular problems in indigenous communities is significant, and control measures from the government are limited. Apart from these, the absence of equality in basic health precaution results in elementary universality like sexually communicated diseases; HIV/AIDS, drug abuse, poor cleanliness, etc. are the common problems that contributed to health challenges in indigenous communities.

Arthur, B.W., 2018. Indigenous autonomy in Australia: Some concepts, issues and examples. Canberra, ACT: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR), The Australian National University.

Health Sociology - Question 3

Psychiatry can be viewed as an institute of social control. Draw on sociological theories and examples to discuss this statement.

Social control and medicine are practiced in healthy surroundings, and government services are maintained and applied in contract with the law. In modern society, medicine has an important part in regulating most diseases. To obey and conform to social ethics with both informal and formal means, individuals are encouraged for establishing social control. The internal means of social control are described by social control theory. The theory argues that conformity is encouraged by relationships, beliefs, values, and commitments. For example, people incline to practice social norms while watching TV and eating, irrespective of the presence of other people. A question was asked by a theorist named Michel Foucault in his 1975, that how people establish particular integrity that stimulates social devotion? However, before this time, the government attained social control through the ordinary regulation of organizations (McIntosh and Rock 2018). Besides, the state started to attain social control through casting the minds of its focuses such that people were refined to follow even when they are out of the direct scrutiny of the punishing consultant. The social principles which are cultivated in people are products of familiar social control. They are practiced by the community without openly stating these rubrics and are expressed by norms, customs, and more.

McIntosh, M. and Rock, P. eds., 2018. Deviance and social control (Vol. 18). Routledge: London

Health Sociology - Question 4

What are the key benefits and limitations of e-health?

In the modern world, health services are provisioned by the means of advanced technology. In the history of medical sciences, hospitals were dependent on the artificial system of health to develop a digital e-health network. E-health is an approach of utilizing communication advancement and information technologies, for example, the Internet, to handle and deliver high-quality medical facilities to the patients. E-health is also helpful in improving health care quality including medical research, education, and disease tracking. This practice also allows the users of electronic equipment in health care to perform efficiently and provide effective services to the patients (Ahmadinia and Eriksson-Backa 2020).

However, despite having several benefits, e-health also has few limitations. E-health system can put pressure on staff members to the manual health care network. E-health system requires a trained health care staff that is familiar with electronic devices of medical sciences. It can be expensive even hard for hospitals to find trained staff. As result, hospitals may suffer from financial damages as they have to invest large capital in sourcing e-health equipment and hiring trained workers. Moreover, the hospitals also need to alter the entire ongoing system which will demand training emergent training programs for existing staff. Hence it is now an easy or durable practice for small organizations.

Ahmadinia, H. and Eriksson-Backa, K., 2020. E-healthservices and devices: Availability, merits, and barriers-with some examples from Finland. Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare, 12(1), pp.10-21.

Health Sociology - Question 5

How does ideology and politics shape health outcomes? Draw on examples such as the PBS to illustrate your points.

The health consequences and ideological state implemented by the politicians have inordinate influence. In the Australian context, politicians are the central legislators responsible to develop policies and laws to deal with existing failure and promote the success factor of the health care system. For example, policies and laws regulate whether patients will get affordable and quality health care facilities or vice versa. Ideology and politics are the two key constituents of health care to affirm the right to everyone to select the physicians according to their wishes to receive further treatment. Politics and ideology are the crucial resources of domestic affirmation (Cinaroglu 2019).

The accurate part of the indication that is normal in the “Australian government taxpayers and the patients”, have accomplished to recognize the probable rate of the causes to regulate the immense ratio of health deficits in Australia. The existence of the “Australian Government minister for health” has been positioned to accommodate the demands and needs of the entities, to diminish the proportion of the health concerns. The presence of the detrimental and careful approach to have the elimination in the PBS items and the interval of the disclosure procedure has been ample effective effect over recent times.

Cinaroglu, S., 2019. Politics and health outcomes: A path analytic approach. The International journal of health planning and management, 34(1), pp.e824-e843.

Health Sociology - Question 6

Certain mechanisms of functionalist theory are utilised today. Discuss what they are and highlight the main assumptions and limitations of functionalism.

The functionalism school considers society as an inclusive system with multiple divisions. Due to the combination of parts, it is believed that each constituent is a common objective for different purposes. However, alteration in the existing system can result in dysfunction of the entire unit. Similarly, quality and effective health care are important to safeguard the unified functioning of the community completely. The ongoing health and effective medical services of care are crucial to offering stability in regulating diseases standby in the course. The individuals of the society are hard to be productive when they are positioned at odds. Hence the key assumption put forward by functionalists is that quality health care and effective medical services are essential for the better function of society (Wellstead, Howlett, and Rayner 2017). The functionalism theory illustrated that the relationship between doctors and patients is hierarchical which means doctors' instruction must be obliged by patients. The second assumption states that there are no conflicts and mechanical changes that occurred in the system. However, the functionalism theory has been constantly criticized for its absence of support for communal change because it consists of undesirable social functions. The most important aspect which is necessary for today’s world dynamics i.e. to motivate people to recruit change within the culture is noticeably ignored by functionalism theories.

Wellstead, A., Howlett, M. and Rayner, J., 2017. Structural-functionalism redux: adaptation to climate change and the challenge of a science-driven policy agenda. Critical Policy Studies, 11(4), pp.391-410.

Health Sociology - Question 7

What is medical dominance and how does the medical profession achieve medical dominance in Australia?

Medical benefits rely on the control of functioning conditions, the content of work, labor division, and other features of the health profession. In the establishment of medical facilities, medical autonomy and advantages are held by doctors. The medical dominance term has been used to focus on the rate of the dominant control over people content tinted by medical appraisal. This is also called an autonomous system which requires the establishment of self-discipline over the degree of the patients to achieve desired pacification. Hence to build up the modes of development the much-required gratification have the procurement of reconstructing the natural phenomenon of the health care system (Scott et al. 2015).

In Australia, the potency rate has peaked to the maximum of admiration in modern times which is harvested by the medical dominance. It is only because the interdependence rate fetched by medical work has been on the rising edge nowadays. The different sorts of communication that is dominant with the occupational community in Sydney, has been very efficient to deal with the medical governance in the utmost effective mode. Hence the interest rate which is governed by medical dominance is the utmost ruling factor which is emphasizing complete control over the several sorts of labor division.

Scott, K.M., Caldwell, P.H., Barnes, E.H. and Barrett, J., 2015. “Teaching by humiliation” and mistreatment of medical students in clinical rotations: a pilot study. Medical journal of Australia, 203(4), pp.185-185.

Health Sociology - Question 8

Explain the concept of discourse and explain how it is relevant to health and biomedicine in Australia. Draw on examples to highlight you points.

Health is becoming the most significant factor that requires effective measures and development to act upon in major parts of Australia. It is a basic privilege of biomedical science in the country to have the presentation of common regulations and laws which are required to shape up the general stage of the discourse balance. The discourse is the most familiar term of the era which is related to the utmost effective mode of re-communications in a harmless manner to have the achievement of creative thinking. This usual of developing creative concepts helped in reconstructing the forum step which is the establishing rate of interest in the bioscience field (Sointu 2016).

The effective rate of interacting skills which is prevailing in Australia has exterminated the different barriers rate to have an achievement of the assertive features. These features are required to have a clear insight into the challenges which are to be resolved. In Australia, most of the several discourse levels and intercommunication skills that triumphs between the doctor and the patient have restructured several sorts of concerns that were not identified initially. Moreover, the worth noticed fact is that most of the doctors use the idea of medical discourse to comprehend the treatment methods.

Sointu, E., 2016. Discourse, affect and affliction. The Sociological Review, 64(2), pp.312-328.

Health Sociology - Question 9

What is multi-culturalism and how might health needs differ for immigrants and refugees to people who are born in Australia?

Multiculturalism arises when diverse cultures of society are renowned and preserved together regardless of racism. This development has changed the rate of immigrants every year. The rate of unlike people who are continuously shifting from a place to another has been experiencing numerous types of challenges. The word “multiculturalism” refers to the combination of several cultures that highpoints the standards and the various rate of philosophy that occurs in one specific country. It is the foremost concern that requires to be furnished in command to have the prevalence of the varied cultures and norms.

Australia is an inimitable country recognized for its culture of identical access to health facilities for all residents, refugees, and migrants (Hadfield, Ostrowski, and Ungar 2017). In accumulation to the health amenities required by refugees and immigrants, they are dissimilar from native persons in Australia. The key trouble in defining the well-being status of refugees and migrants is that they are an assorted group. As result, their health position is impacted by a range of factors, such as coverage to the threats of the working atmosphere, deprived working circumstances, the right to wellbeing and health care facilities, the distance of stay, etc. These disturb their health because of not being habituated to such a level of cultural dissimilarities.

because of not being habituated to such a level of cultural dissimilarities.

Hadfield, K., Ostrowski, A. and Ungar, M., 2017. What can we expect of the mental health and well-being of Syrian refugee children and adolescents in Canada?. Canadian Psychology/psychologie canadienne, 58(2), p.194.

Health Sociology - Question 10

What are the social determinants of health and how do they help us understand the dynamics of globalisation and inequity? Draw on examples in the Australian context to illustrate your key points.

Social determinants are determined by the surroundings in which the individual was grown up, born, existed, and functioned. These aspects disturb the employment position, socio-economic, and education status of entities. In Australia, social factors include social exclusion, violence and discrimination, and free and safe economic contribution, which offer access to progressive health care facilities. These are the utmost significant aspects that can benefit from interpreting the diverse levels of understanding resources that are enforced upon individuals.

Globalization has been the most mutual term in allocating with the diverse levels of the social determinants of healthiness (Forster et al. 2019). The rate of the prevalent policy dynamics and interacting quality that is predominant in “Australian Business finance institution”, has been portraying the rate of the intensified growth of the economy of Australia. This has been credited to the accomplishment of the growth of several improvements in health care arrangements. Meanwhile, the increasing rate of social determinants of health simultaneously led to the upsurge inequality level. The numerous set of general differences or health inequity or the poor governance and the unfair justice are often interconnected to the social determinants of health challenges, prevailing mostly in Australia particularly Sydney and Brisbane. 

Forster, T., Kentikelenis, A.E., Stubbs, T.H. and King, L.P., 2019. Globalization and health equity: The impact of structural adjustment programs on developing countries. Social Science & Medicine, p.112496.

References for E-Healthservices and Devices

Ahmadinia, H. and Eriksson-Backa, K., 2020. E-healthservices and devices: Availability, merits, and barriers-with some examples from Finland. Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare, 12(1), pp.10-21.

Arthur, B.W., 2018. Indigenous autonomy in Australia: Some concepts, issues and examples. Canberra, ACT: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR), The Australian National University.

Cinaroglu, S., 2019. Politics and health outcomes: A path analytic approach. The International journal of health planning and management, 34(1), pp.e824-e843.

Forster, T., Kentikelenis, A.E., Stubbs, T.H. and King, L.P., 2019. Globalization and health equity: The impact of structural adjustment programs on developing countries. Social Science & Medicine, p.112496.

Hadfield, K., Ostrowski, A. and Ungar, M., 2017. What can we expect of the mental health and well-being of Syrian refugee children and adolescents in Canada?. Canadian Psychology/psychologie canadienne, 58(2), p.194.

McIntosh, M. and Rock, P. eds., 2018. Deviance and social control (Vol. 18). Routledge: London

Scott, K.M., Caldwell, P.H., Barnes, E.H. and Barrett, J., 2015. “Teaching by humiliation” and mistreatment of medical students in clinical rotations: a pilot study. Medical journal of Australia, 203(4), pp.185-185.

Sointu, E., 2016. Discourse, affect and affliction. The Sociological Review, 64(2), pp.312-328.

Weiss, G.L., 2015. Sociology of health, healing, and illness. Routledge: London

Wellstead, A., Howlett, M. and Rayner, J., 2017. Structural-functionalism redux: adaptation to climate change and the challenge of a science-driven policy agenda. Critical Policy Studies, 11(4), pp.391-410.

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