A research paper can be defined as a written work which involves the process source evaluation, critical thinking, researching and organizing. Moreover, researches are based on results that are already known. Research paper is a type of paper in which scholar’s analyses different topics or question and writes the paper in the defined theme.
Types of paper
Analytical research paper: It involves a procedure which include describing multiple point of view on a single topic, then analyzing all point of view related to the topic and lastly drawing a conclusion.
Persuasive/Argumentative research paper:The aim of the research paper is to get the reader toward the side of researcher’s point of view. It involves a procedure which include describing two different point of view of the problem, then collecting and proposing advantage and disadvantage of both sides and lastly giving the preference to one with appropriate reasoning (Quinlan,Babin, Carr and Griffin 2019).
Experimental research paper: In this research paper a particular experimental case is discussed in detail. It involves a procedure which includes conducting an experiment, their sharing the details or useful experience and lastly providing data and results of the experiment.
Survey research paper: This type of researches are used in advertising, business, public health, marketing, psychology and sociology. It involves a procedure which include conducting a survey, then analyzing the finding and lastly draw a conclusion with appropriate reasoning (Bell, Bryman and Harley 2018).
The research paper has the following characteristics that includes sources, format, length and style.
Length: It defines the number of needed source required for the analysis.
Style: the style of the research paper must be formal and should cover the inclusive and impersonal language.
Format: it includes the structure and norms including standard academic formatting and final work organization (Bell, Bryman and Harley 2018).
A hypothesis is an assumption or a specific, testable prediction. It is an assumption made by an analyst during his research and the plausibility of this assumption or hypothesis is checked by performing hypothesis testing (Spielmann 2018).
Hypothesis testing is a test performed by analyst to test an assumption regarding a population parameter. Hypothesis testing uses simple data to assess the credibility of a hypothesis. This type of data may come from data generating process or from a large population. Hypothesis testing involves four steps which include;
First step: The analyst states two different hypothesis so that only one can be right.
Second step: Formulating an analysis plan with the help of which the evaluation of data can be conducted.
Third step: In this step, the analyst carries out the plan and then he physically analyses the data.
Forth step: It is the final step in which the result is analyzed. The result is analyzed by either stating that the null hypothesis is credible or by rejecting the null hypothesis. The result is concluded with a proper reasoning and evidence (Spielmann 2018).
Q.2.A. Features of Good Research Design
Some of the features are generalizability, validity, reliability and objectivity.
Q.2.B. Parameters of Good Hypothesis
It includes power of prediction, consistency and harmony, fruitful for new discoveries, relevant to available techniques, specific, relevant to problem, testability, clarity, simplicity and closest to observable things.
Q.2.C. Research Proposal
It is a document that proposes a research project generally in science or academic. Moreover, it also constitutes sponsorship request for that research.
Q.2.D. Techniques for Quantitative Data Analysis
It includes cross tabulation,descriptive statistics, comparing means (statistical data),frequency distribution (histogram), and correlations (Bell, Bryman and Harley 2018).
Q.2.E. Sampling Size Determination
It is an act through which number of observation are chosen in order to include it in a statistical sample.
There are two types of data collection methods namely secondary method and primary method of data collection. Secondary type of data is a data that are already published. This type of data can be collected from online portal, journals, magazines, books, newspapers etc. In this types of sources, there is an enormous amount of data available that can be used for the research purpose in almost all kind of areas regardless of the nature of the research. An appropriate set of criteria is to be used in order to select secondary data because it is plays an important role in the study in terms of increasing the reliability and validity of the research. These criteria includes quality of discussion, depth of analysis etc (Paradis, O'Brien, Nimmon,Bandiera and Martimianakis 2016).
Primary data collection method is divided into two subdivisions namely quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data collection method includes various formats based in mathematical calculation. This type of methods include median, mode, mean, regression and correlation methods, and questionnaires with closed ended questions. These type of methods are can be applied in shorter period of time and are cheaper as compared to qualitative methods.On the other hand, qualitativedata collection method includes case studies, game or role playing, observation, focus groups, questionnaires with closed ended questions and interviews. Qualitative studies ensures greater level of depth of understanding and this type of researches are closely associated with colors, emotions, feelings, sounds , words and other elements which are non-quantifiable (Hennink, Hutter and Bailey 2020).
Research reliability can be defined as the degree to which method used in research generation of consistent and stable results. Reliability can be defined as getting same result or answer more than once by using an instrument (Maxwell 2017). Research reliability is divided into three categories which are as follows:
Test retest reliability: It relates to the reliability measure that has been obtained more than one time by conducting the same test with the participants of the same sample group over a period of time. Example: With an interval of two weeks an employee of CBACompany is asked to complete the same questionnaire related to the employee job satisfaction in order to test the results.
Parallel forms reliability: It relates to the reliability measure obtained via more than one assessment method with the participant of same sample group by conduction assessment of same phenomena. Example: The level of job satisfaction of an employee of CBA Company can be assessed with focus groups, in-depth interview, questionnaires and results can be compared (Maxwell 2017).
Inter-rater reliability: it is use same methods by different assessors to measure the sets of the result obtained. Example: Two different assessors can assess the level of motivation of employee at CBA Company using observation methods and inter-rater reliability relates to the extent of difference between the two assessments.
Internal consistency reliability: It is applied where the same construct produces similar results and to assess the amount of differences within the test items (Maxwell 2017).
Q.2.A. Characteristics of Researcher
Some characteristics of researchers are intelligence, commitment, curiosity, an analytical mind, quick thinker, excellent writing and verbal communication skills.
Q.2.B. Importance of Research
Q.2.C. Frequency distributions
It tells about distribution of frequencies over value and it is an overview of all distinct value. Also used for summarizing categorical variables.
Q.2.D. Techniques for Quantitative Research
Techniques include survey, questionnaires, data collection through polls, mathematical and computational techniques (Bell, Bryman and Harley 2018).
Q.2.E Process of Research
It involves selecting research area, formulating aim and hypothesis, literature review, data collection method, primary data collection, data analysis, research conclusion and completing the research
Quinlan, C., Babin, B., Carr, J. and Griffin, M. 2019. Business research methods. South Western Cengage.
Bell, E., Bryman, A. and Harley, B. 2018. Business research methods. Oxford university press.
Hennink, M., Hutter, I. and Bailey, A. 2020. Qualitative research methods. SAGE Publications Limited.
Maxwell, J.A. 2017. The validity and reliability of research: A realist perspective. The BERA/SAGE handbook of educational research, pp.116-140.
Paradis, E., O'Brien, B., Nimmon, L., Bandiera, G. and Martimianakis, M.A.T. 2016. Design: selection of data collection methods. Journal of graduate medical education, 8(2), p.263.
Spielmann, K. 2018. The Logic of Intelligence Analysis: Why Hypothesis Testing Matters. London: Routledge.
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