2 Question 1
3 Question 2
3.1 First useable
3.2 Last useable host
4 Question 3
5 Question 4
The configuration or topology of a network is critical in determining its exposure. Network geography is the design of network, including the physical or coherent representation of how connections and hubs are set up to identify with each other. There are several ways a network can be orchestrated, each with different advantages and disadvantages, and some are more useful than others under certain conditions. Administrators are free to choose the geographic area of a network. This selection must take into account the size and scope of your business, your goals, and your budget (Berglund, 2012). Some initiatives relate to executives' successful business geography, including board design, visual planning, and overall execution control. The key is to understand your goals and requirements to create and manage network geography the right way for your business.
Structured cabling is characterized as a cabling structure for building or terrestrial broadcast communication that includes various smaller standardized (organized) components (Åkesson, 2015). Properly planned and implemented structural harness structure provides a harness foundation that conveys unsurprising execution, as well as adaptability to force movements, crests and changes improves the accessibility of the framework; gives an excess; and future confirmations on the usability of the wiring system.
Network hardware, also known as networking equipment or PC network gadgets, are electronic gadgets that are required for matching and collaborating between gadgets in a PC network. In particular, they are involved in the transmission of information in a PC network. Entities that are the ultimate beneficiary or producing information are called information end frames or end devices (Ashworth, 2017).
192.168.118..4.0/24 with the default subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. The requirement is to perform subnetting such that we create as many subnets as we can with 40 hosts in each subnet.
Our First step will be to determine how many bits do we need to borrow from the host portion such that the requirement of minimum 40 hosts per subnet is fulfilled. Using the formula below 2n -2,
Where the exponent n is equal to the number of bits left after subnet bits are borrowed. We can calculate how many bits will be required so that each subnet has 40 host addresses. 25 -2 =30, so 5 bits at least must be available for host addressing and the remaining can be borrowed to create subnet addresses. The -2 in the formula accounts for two addresses the subnetwork address and the broadcast address which cannot be assigned to hosts.
The network 192.168.116.0.4/24 has 8 bits for host portion and we will reserve 5 bits for the new host portion, the 3 bits remaining can now be used for creating subnets. To determine how many subnets we can create, use the following formula:
2n = number of subnets where the exponent n is bits borrowed from the host portion.
Thus in this case we can create 23 =8 subnets
Our second step will be to calculate the new subnet mask, our previous subnet mask was 255.255.255.0 or 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 in binary. Since we have borrowed 3 bits from the host portion our new subnet mask will be 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000 which is 255.255.255.224 when converted to decimal notation.
We have discussed in detail the conversion process of binary to decimal and vice versa. When performing IP subnetting we will refer to the picture shown below which is very handy in this process.
So our original subnet mask was 255.255.255.0 and we allocated 3 bits from the host portion which allowed us to have 8 subnets and 30 hosts within each subnet. We can quickly convert 255.255.255.0 to binary by looking at the table above. An octet which is 255 in decimal will be 11111111 in binary so 255.255.255.0 will be 11111111. 11111111. 11111111.00000000. We will set the first 3 bits of the last octet to 1 and last octet will now be 11100000 which from the table above will be 224 in decimal. So our new subnet mask is 255.255.255.224
Our third step will be to determine the subnet multiplier which is fairly simple. All we have to do is subtract the last nonzero octet of the subnet mask from 256. So in this case our subnet multiplier will be 256-224 =32. We will use the subnet multiplier in the next step to list the subnets.
Subnet Address Host Range Broadcast Address
192.168.118..4.0/24 192.168.116.161 – 192.168.116.190 192.168.116.191
First we need to calculate the subnet of the given address
Our first step will be deciding how many bits we need to get from the host segment with the ultimate goal of meeting the need for at least 30 hosts for each subnet. Use the recipe below
2n - 2,
Where, for example, n is the number of bits left after retrieving the subnet bits.
Network 10.50.229.66/23 has 8 bits for the segment and we will save 5 for the new host division. The remaining 3 bits can now be used to create subnets. Use the related equation to decide how many subnets we can create:
23= Number of subnets
If the example is n blocks received from the host side, we can make 23=8 subnets for this situation
3.1 First useable host
3.2 Last useable host
3.3 Broadcast address
In a broadcast address, all the host bits are set to the binary value 1, so if all host bits are set to the value 0, this is the subnet address.
IPv4 address 10.50.229.66/23
10.50.229.66/23 is the IP address and 23 is the subnet mask. The /23 corresponds to the subnet mask 255.255.255.0. The IP address consists of 4 decimals – called octets – which are separated by points. One octet contains 8 bits, which is why IPv4 is a 32-bit address. Each octet can represent a number between 0 and 255. In this case, the whole of the last octet consists of host bits. Therefore, in this example, the broadcast address would be 10.50.229.255 – so all host bits at 1.
We have a class B address of 172.31.0.0. With the default subnet mask (255.255.0.0) we have a single network. To create additional subnets we use a larger subnet mask than the default. For example, let’s take a maks of 255.255.255.0 to create additional subnets.
With this mask we have subnets: 172.31.0.0, 172.31.1.0, 172.31.2.0, up to 172.16.255.0. Notice that in this case we changed the number in the third octet. From the subnet mask we know that he subnet address is the first three octets in the address. By varying the number in the third octet we create additional subnets. When it comes to number of hosts in a subnet, let’s take a look at one subnet. For subnet 172.31.0.0 we could have hosts from 172.31.0.1 to 172.31.0.254. This gives us a maximum of 254 hosts on each subnet, in this example. For our 1000 hosts we would need approximately 5 subnets. So in our case we would use subnets 172.31.0.0, 172.31.1.0, 172.31.2.0, 172.31.3.0, and 172.16.4.0 to support all our computers on our network. The rest of the subnets can be then used on other networks.
We could also subnet this address by adding one more 255 to the subnet mask, but what would be the subnets? Is the 188.8.131.52 subnet OK? No, its not OK, and that’s because we can only change the third octet (and fourth) in this case to create the subnets. That’s because we first got the 255.255.0.0 mask, and that means that we can’t change first two octets. In this case the possible subnets are 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, and so on up to 22.214.171.124.
If you connect to the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP), you are usually assigned a temporary IP address for the duration of your dial-in session. If you connect to the Internet from a local area network (LAN) your computer might have a permanent IP address or it might obtain a temporary one from a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server. In any case, if you are connected to the Internet, your computer has a unique IP address.
So your computer is connected to the Internet and has a unique address. How does it 'talk' to other computers connected to the Internet? An example should serve here: Let's say your IP address is 126.96.36.199 and you want to send a message to the computer 188.8.131.52. The message you want to send is "Hello computer 184.108.40.206!". Obviously, the message must be transmitted over whatever kind of wire connects your computer to the Internet. Let's say you've dialed into your ISP from home and the message must be transmitted over the phone line. Therefore the message must be translated from alphabetic text into electronic signals, transmitted over the Internet, and then
translated back into alphabetic text. How is this accomplished? Through the use of a protocol stack. Every computer needs one to communicate on the Internet and it is usually built into the computer's operating system (i.e. Windows, Unix, etc.). The protocol stack used on the Internet is referred to as the TCP/IP protocol stack because of the two major communication protocols used.
The ISP maintains a pool of modems for their dial-in customers. This is managed by some form of computer (usually a dedicated one) which controls data flow from the modem pool to a backbone or dedicated line router. This setup may be referred to as a port server, as it 'serves' access to the network. Billing and usage information is usually collected here as well. After your packets traverse the phone network and your ISP's local equipment, they are routed onto the ISP's backbone or a backbone the ISP buys bandwidth from. From here the packets will usually journey through several routers and over several backbones, dedicated lines, and other networks until they find their destination, the computer with address 220.127.116.11.
A router is usually connected between networks to route packets between them. Each router knows about its sub-networks and which IP addresses they use. The router usually doesn't know what IP addresses are 'above' it. Examine Diagram 5 below. The black boxes connecting the backbones are routers (Parker, 2018). The larger NSP backbones at the top are connected at a NAP. Under them are several sub-networks, and under them, more sub-networks. At the bottom are two local area networks with computers attached.
When a packet arrives at a router, the router examines the IP address put there by the IP protocol layer on the originating computer. The router checks its routing table. If the network containing the IP address is found, the packet is sent to that network. If the network containing the IP address is not found, then the router sends the packet on a default route, usually up the backbone hierarchy to the next router (Chen, 2017). Hopefully the next router will know where to send the packet. If it does not, again the packet is routed upwards until it reaches a NSP backbone. The routers connected to the NSP backbones hold the largest routing tables and here the packet will be routed to the correct backbone, where it will begin its journey 'downward' through smaller and smaller networks until it finds its destination.
Åkesson, J. F., 2015. Interprocess Communication Utilising Special Purpose Hardware. pp. 34-36.
Ashworth, P. D. &. L. U., 2017. Achieving empathy and engagement: a practical approach to the design, onduct and reporting of phenomenorgaphic research. Studies in higher Education. Volume 25, pp. 32-54.
Berglund, A., 2012. On the Understanding of Computer Network Protocols. pp. 43-46.
Chen, J., 2017. “Meassured Performance of 5-GHz 802.11a Wireless LAN Systems.” Atheros Communications. Sunnyvale, CA.. Volume 1, pp. 43-56.
Parker, B., 2018. Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks. Volume 12, pp. 56-67.
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