Analysis and discussion of results.
Gender disparity has been a controversial topic in recent years. The gender disparity had been part of media and entertainment in portraying women in a more degrading way. The media has been very vocal in illuminating the role of females as the second gender. As far as the media is concerned, the alignment is such that the female is portrayed through providing less salary as compared to men in the field. The female has been subjected to sexual abuse by men due to the exposure of the media. The views that the media had in the earlier times were the notions regarding stereotypes and gender inequality. Society has been responsible for it and has been influenced by it as well. The following research would develop and analyze the causes and the influences of linguistics and stereotypes of gender in media and entertainment.
The research question that must be encountered and talked about is the gender disparities that have been encountered from the time media and entertainment has been in existence. There have been multiple changes and have been portrayed as how the media is responsible for portraying the role of the masculine and feminine in society. The use of feminine articulation would also be discussed and how the picture is used in society and in presenting and objectifying the products.
The background literature that has been chosen is from various journals and research articles. It contains a study and research of gender and language by Lisa Litosselti. Several other kinds of literature have been selected to fulfil the research work related to the selected topic. The other literature chosen are articles by Alfurayh and Burns in 2019, gender and ideology by Mendoza‐Denton in 1996, communications needs in gender by Johnson in 2013, use of personal pronoun gender idealization by Ackerman, Riches, & Ellenberg in2018. The all above-mentioned reading and references are the provided references following the lectures. The other references that had been included are the latest newspaper articles, film articles, and journals related to the gender and corpus linguistic field. The references provide data on the use of the language in the media and entertainment concerning gender and its use.
The method applied is the research work and analysis of provided literature in the weekly classes. The provided information would be further elaborated and discussed on a larger basis for the initial and final discussion. The method of analysis would also include the references from various writers and dissertations related to the gender and the media and entertainment. the analysis is done based on provided lecture models and certain authentic articles related to media and entertainment which provide the latest data in regards to the gender biases and the stereotypes followed by the changes that have been occurring with the latest new models and up-gradation in providing space to both the genders equally through linguistics. The PowerPoint presentation mainly demonstrated by Dr Smith has been included and made in use to be analysing the topic.
In the following research article, the feminist portrayal would be discussed with the linguistic and the media texts in negotiation with the femininities and masculinities of the ideologies. Research would target mainly at what level is women consumed while being in the media and entertainment line. The approach of masculinity and femininity is also an important criterion that would be discussed in the following research. The use of corpus linguistics is also very important as it decides the personalization of the gender in portraying the audience about a certain situation in entertainment and product during the advertisement (Smith, 2020). The discussion is also about the language and the deliberate way of thinking of the male and female counterparts.
As stated by Smith (2020), in her PowerPoint presentation Mars and venus: early perspective, while starting with the discussion, women have been taken as secondary in society for a very long time. From the fact of being polite to argumentative, men have been considered more active and unapologetic (Smith, 2020). There was a time when women were objectified and had no more use in entertainment fields. According to Mendoza‐Denton, 1996, gags and jokes related to female work and objectifying the role of women in society. They are represented disproportionately as far as the media is concerned. They are much more into the domestication part rather than the main fields as compared to men. The decision for women is taken by men and not women themselves in all fields. The rate at which the women are subjected to biasedness is portrayed in the media where the movies are entitled to have more scenes of men rather than women. The women are considered as showpieces to add glamour or to be sex objects rather than providing them with the acting elements and good roles (Mendoza‐Denton, 1996). As stated by Johnson, (2013), there is a difference between the pay scale modes which further elevates the differences of gender and the disparity of the sexes (Johnson, 2013). The portrayal of the body structure is also relevant in the media. The unrealistic and unnatural shapes that are shown are just for entertainment and have no relation to reality. The portrait displayed is unnatural and it arouses negativity in the minds of the males and they start to have an expectation that is beyond reach increasing tension and animosity.
The use of language has been consistent in the feminine sense and the media and entertainment as well. The target audience and changes in the media markets with increasing competition have led to a change in entertainment, infotainment, and adversarial language. According to Alfurayh & Burns, 2019, the media are sites for the representation, construction, and contestation of Gender and language in the media. The media has started to address the public according to the reader, viewer, and listener. The portrayal of women is also done as sex objects or in a secondary or passive role. Men are depicted as strong independent characters (Alfurayh & Burns, 2019).
As far as the entertainment field is concerned that is endowed with the films, the females have been provided with fear roles as compared to men that count up to 30% in females and the rest is for the male counterparts (Schofield & Mehr, 2016). The use of language and the role must be highlighted in the films which have seen a significant increase in times. The models for developing language is unigram, trigram frequencies that would help in developing the gender-appropriate dialogues in the films, As suggested by Schofield & Mehr, (2016), these sophisticated techniques can help in developing and figuring out the simple lexical features and can also develop a proper usable script in the field of media and films that would upgrade the gender equality through the language and its use (Schofield & Mehr, 2016).
Personalization or use of personal nouns have also been seen in the magazines' advertisement.
While analyzing the media texts, the language used is both audience perspective and gender semantics. Ackerman and his colleagues in his journal published in 2018, state that this new way of portraying and analyzing the language while using the gender in media is quite effective. The new media helps in contacting both the gender in an equal way. The female magazines have advertisements that connect with the female audience or viewer. The male magazines have their counterparts. Personalization helps in relating to the products and the consumer. The outcome is such that the gender disparity has decreased in many content and extent. Progressive sort of discourse is portrayed and encouraged in both the cases where both the genders are equally used and given the same sort of value and importance in the media. The progress hence becomes multifaceted and has been growing from time to time. The depiction thus is made by the woman herself (Ackerman et al., 2018).
The ppt presentation by Dr Jess Birnie Smith, 2020, also portrays the use of personal pronouns through the movie Ada Apa Dengan Cinta where the nature of the protagonist is shown through the use of the pronoun. The lexical and linguistic features helped in the movie to portray the character (Smith, 2020).
At present, women are depicted in magazines in such a way that the maximum number of buyers are women. According to Arslan, Arslan, & Sezer, 2017, in their journals, it stated that 19 % of journalists compromise women whereas 81% were men. The news articles and the magazine articles written as well were depicting more of the masculine personal pronoun rather than the neutral gender or feminine gender (Arslan, Arslan, & Sezer, 2017). Starting from the car advertisement to other general stuff. This is not surprising as this is also seen as a gender stereotype and the use of linguistics is also made in such a way that it targets women. Women are placed as a subject of consumers and buyers in the advertisement. The use of media has also been diversified in having the portrayal specifically for men and women.
The scenarios keep on changing because men have become more sensitive in portraying any gender biases. The rules and regulations that were rigid and had been followed for many years have now become loose and have engulfed a lot of other things. Men have become accustomed to cooking chores and it is well represented in the media. As stated by Jia et al., (2016), the female face has become more prominent as compared to men in recent times in the media. Starting from the news channel to the tv shows and podcasts, the women have been providing space to have interactions and share the same place with that of the men (Jia et al., 2016).
The gender in the media and entertainment with corpus linguistics is important and has been an influencing factor in determining the position of gender in recent times. The gender can be used efficiently through language property that would help in enabling the portrayal of the advertisement and the entertainment without being subjective and unreasonable. The use of corpus linguistics in media and entertainment to portray gender is turning out less biased and less objectifying as far as the gender portrayal is concerned.
Ackerman, Riches, & Ellenberg. (2018). Ackerman_et_al_LSA2018-gender-pronouns.pdf. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from Google Docs website: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1yEl1eJRelU-c7u3y7kBGyUWkHEvTwdc7/view
Alfurayh, L., & Burns, M. C. (2019). Redefining ‘me’: identity change among female Saudi study abroad students in Australia. Journal of Gender Studies, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2019.1707645
Arslan, B., ARSLAN, E., & SEZER, T. (2017). The Visibility Of Masculine And Feminine Languages In Columns. European Journal of Language and Literature, 9(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.26417/ejls.v9i1.p25-35
Jia, S., Lansdall-Welfare, T., Sudhahar, S., Carter, C., & Cristianini, N. (2016). Women Are Seen More than Heard in Online Newspapers. PLOS ONE, 11(2), e0148434. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148434
Johnson, J. R. (2013). Cisgender Privilege, Intersectionality, and the Criminalization of CeCe McDonald: Why Intercultural Communication Needs Transgender Studies. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 6(2), 135–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2013.776094
Mendoza‐Denton, N. (1996). ‘Muy Macha’: Gender and ideology in gang‐girls’ discourse about makeup*. Ethnos, 61(1–2), 47–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/00141844.1996.9981527
Schofield, A., & Mehr, L. (2016). Gender-Distinguishing Features in Film Dialogue. Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature. https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/w16-0204
Smith B.J (2020). Identities, Ideologies and Indexicality of Gender(powerpoint presentation)
Smith B.J (2020). Mars and Venus: Early perspective (powerpoint presentation)
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