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Table of Contents
Hospitality and Tourism..
Mobile technology has transformed the lives of people in various ways ever since it was launched as a product. The combination of science and technology has helped incorporate the use of mobiles in almost every sector. With rapid innovations being carried out on the mobile technology, mobiles have evolved from being a device to enable wireless calling to a device which can perform various high-end functions. This technology has advanced from being a luxury during its inception, to being a daily use product. Mobile technology has taken over major tasks carried out by humans on daily basis and added a sense of efficiency and effectiveness to the process and results of those tasks. The basic use of mobile technology was to assist its users in establishing effective communication. But today it has expanded the methodology of communication by making messaging and voice notes accessible to every person at any point in time in the world. It has also made the entertainment industry available to every person on their fingertips. People are able to access different forms of multimedia and information by using various high-end applications. Besides these tasks, the mobile technology has also made tasks such as bill payments, ticket bookings and flight and hotel check-ins possible with the help of increased emphasis by many industries to provide online businesses and creating a better experience for their customers with a user-friendly interface. However, every user makes use of this technology for different purposes and relies on it for a variety of tasks, this technology does bring along some of the major drawbacks related to the science and technology sector. There are numerous studies being carried out to understand the true potential of this technology in various sections of the society. A study carried out in 2018 suggested that the number of mobile phones had crossed the total number of human beings on the planet, accounting to around 7.9 billion phones globally (Criollo-C, Mora & Jaramillo-Alcazar, 2018). Some of the major drawbacks associated to this technology have been addiction to the technology especially among teens, increased chances of cyber-attacks and increased health risks. Hence, it becomes important to study and understand the positives and negatives of this technology over various sections of the society. This review discusses the background of this technology and aims at stating its merits and demerits over some sections of the society such as education, business, etc followed by a discussion on the literature stated in the research section.
The inception of mobile phones dates back to the 40s when this technology was just two-way radios used to establish a communication between cab drivers and emergency services. By the early 90s, mobiles were able to send and receive text messages. Towards the end of the 20th century, mobile phones were able to download media form the internet. In 2008, android phones were introduced to the market and their impact on users can be experienced till date (n.a., 2020). Modern day mobile technology has evolved in terms of reliability, experience, performance and design over the past years. The education system has been revolutionized by the introduction of technology. Classroom lectures and tests have been replaced by virtual classrooms and online tests. Mobile phones have also been a key tool used in this modernization of education. According to Lawson-West (n.d.), mobile technology has helped the tech savvy generation access information over various resources anytime and anywhere as per their convenience. This technology has entered the list of indispensable tools of business. Studies have shown the emergence of mobile phones as a tool for mobile commerce. But some of the drawbacks associated with the implementation of this technology in the business sector include increased costs, distractions in the workplace, increased need for training the staff to familiarise them with the ways they can make use of it and a never-ending need for security protocols (n.a., n.d.). Mobile technology has also made healthcare more convenient and feasible than ever before. With the launch of healthcare applications and an online pharmacy business, the healthcare systems have been made available to almost every person anywhere in the world. According to Reychav et al (2019), mobile healthcare services have been used extensively by various hospitals and clinics to improve the quality of service and for a better physical and mental well-being of the patient. These systems involve monitoring the health parameters related to a person’s health, saving the time spent as commute to healthcare services and reducing the cost spent and increasing accessibility. But it has also led to a decrease in the quality of relationship between a doctor and a patient. With such advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of mobile technology in different sectors of the society it becomes equally important to understand their true potential by studying their benefits and drawbacks and design a better implementation of this technology against a standardised approach.
The literature review of the report is focused at understanding the impact of mobile technology on different sections of the society.
According to Yueh, Lu and Lin (2015), the adoption of mobile technology in working spaces has had a positive impact on the employees in terms of enhancement in performance. The study also suggested that the management of a company should consider the clarification of workflows and understand their employee’s needs and help them realize their workspace goals. According to Nystrom & Gugenishvill (2019), as companies and organizations are approaching advancements in their organizational processes, they can make use of the newly introduced advancement in the mobile technology service, the 5G. As business have been dependent on technology for various inputs, the advancement in communication spectrums can lead to better business model and strategy in serving its customers. But according to Kerwin & Radulovic (201), although mobiles facilitate workspaces through a range of benefits, it parallelly acts as source of distraction leading to reduced efforts of employees towards their roles and responsibilities.
According to Gunawan (2018), tourism and technology have shared a relation which in particular has been influenced since the inception of the internet. The combination of internet and mobile technology has facilitated services such as multimedia, photography, GPS enabled services, etc. According to Kim and Kim (2017), the effects of the use of mobile technology and the presence of travel mobile applications have helped the tourism industry in terms of a better tourist-tourist relationship and has helped enhance the capital of the industry through cooperation and reciprocity. According to Dickinson, Hibbert & Filimonau (2016), the mobile technology sector is assuming on expanding their services in terms of travel experience and the number of research groups focusing on tourism research has concentrated on this topic. According to Ostdick (2019), the travel business everywhere has pretty much completely grasped mobile technology and its usefulness during the most recent couple of years and some travel organizations along with new companies have accepted with a bunch of choices and incentives to make use of a mobile platform. But considering the drawbacks of this technology, Yang (2019) suggests that tourism companies need to provide timely updates for their online systems and services which lead to an increased expenditure to companies as database management, security and training. Also, some tourism companies are aiming in deploying mobile tourists guides which can lead to severe conclusions due to poorly managed and designed software.
The healthcare sector has seen some remarkable advancements with the constant innovations being done in the mobile technology sector. According to Bhavnani, Narula & Sengupta (2016), the digitization of healthcare has enabled services such as check-ups, vitals testing and consultancy. These apps provide the freedom to its users by saving costs and time associated to check-ups and doctors by saving the time and energy lost in assisting every individual in cases which require little or short-term medical help. With the ever-expanding advantage of mobile technology also comes some of the major drawbacks. The first and foremost concern for the use of mobile technology in healthcare is to provide sufficient data security. Users who rely on the use of mobile technology for medical assistance often upload crucial data on the mobile application. This information ranges from their personal information to medical history and other relevant data. If not for proper safety procedures, it can lead to data breaches and cyber attackers benefiting from it. According to Vrhovec (2016), 44% of data breaches are caused in healthcare mobile applications. Another concern for the healthcare system is the weak or unavailability of administrative measure which are needed to form the precautionary measures and the steps required to be followed in cases of compromised security protocols.
With the education system relying more on online assignments and with the introduction of online examinations and virtual classrooms, mobile technology has been a key member of the education system for the past years. According to Heflin, Shewmaker & Nguyen (2017), when students are under the influence of technology in educational institutions, often find themselves disengaged and lack participation. Students when come together in a collaborative environment, they exhibit their engagement through speech, eye contact, gestures and postures. According to Suen & Fung (2016), mobile technology and the applications used by students and faculties at these educational institutions pose a challenge to traditional teaching methodologies and its effectiveness. The technological affordances of mobile applications allow teachers and students to adopt mobile technologies in an effective way.
Mobile technology has been associated with mental health issues leading to increased anxiety and till some extent a sense of addiction to the technology. In a study carried out by Kessel, Babbage, Williams & Kersten (2017) with a group of people who had multiple sclerosis. The participants were reported to have significant levels of fatigue with 86% participants owning a smartphone. In another survey carried out by Hsieh, Tsai & Hsia (2020), showed that age groups between 31 to 30 had the highest levels of technology addiction and age groups 21 to 30 had the highest levels of technology related anxiety. The levels of addiction and anxiety was greater in younger people in comparison to middle aged people and senior citizens. This study also concluded that in the group of participants who participated in the survey, women were found to have higher levels of anxiety while using mobile phones in comparison to male participants.
The above-mentioned literature focused on the effects of the mobile technology on different sections of the society. Since it can be difficult to understand the effects of mobile technology on society collectively, understanding the effects under different sections provides a broader in-depth knowledge and a wider approach at the literature associated to the topic. Businesses have been relying on mobile technologies to a greater extent. With the aim of enabling automation in workspaces and to facilitate a better and effective approach of data flow within the organization, mobile technologies hold a prominent position in workspaces to carry out tasks such as data transfer, meetings, message transfers, etc. However, although mobiles can be a means of distraction for employees it also possesses a potential threat to data leaks and breaches. This technology has also influenced the tourism sector with the industry also depending on it to add effectiveness and provide a better experience to its customers. Mobiles are used in the tourism sector to provide GPS services, reservations, language translators and also as a means of entertainment. But since companies are relying to a greater extent on this technology, it makes it an important step for the industry to provide data integrity and to provide constant updates to their databases so as to provide seamless experience to their customers. From the data above, we can also find that mobile technology by means of healthcare applications have been a key participant in the methods utilized by the healthcare sector to make its service available to everyone and has helped reduce the costs and time associated with these services. However, with this also rises the threats to data breaches and security of the data. According to Vrhovec (2016), data breaches in the healthcare sector has been a leading section in terms of data breaches in combination of every sector which is prone to such cyber-attacks. Mobile phones have also been a reason for distraction for students. Although the education sector has been relying extensively on the use of mobile technology to innovate traditional methods of imparting education to students, it still acts as a greater means of distraction to students and addiction. However, some institutions have adapted the use of means of blocking certain websites and applications and allowing only academic content to be accessed by mobiles. This method can be possible only on networks controlled and monitored by educational institutions and not on the user’s private and public networks. Mental health has been an often-referred term with mobile phones. This technology has although decreased physical barriers by helping people stay updated with the outside world, it has also generated a sense of jealousy among people who they follow or aspire to be leading to increased anxiety and depression.
The report discussed the literature review associated to the impacts of mobile technology on society. This technology has transformed the lives of people through many ways. It has added a sense of smartness to almost every task carried out in daily lives. From reading news, playing media, photography and other tasks, every task can be carried out using these devices using an easy and efficient way. But apart from helping humanity in certain ways, this technology carries along some drawbacks. This report studied the effect of mobile technology over different sections of the society including businesses, healthcare, education, tourism and hospitality and mental health. The literature associated with the use of mobile technology in businesses suggested that although mobiles act as an efficient tool in businesses, it also carries along the disadvantage of being a source of distraction and a potential target for cyberattacks. The effects of mobile technology on the healthcare sector can be such that although it has made healthcare available to everyone though various mobile healthcare applications, it has also brought along the increases threat for data breaches, accounting to maximum data breaches in this sector. Mobiles in education have also helped students access information through various online resources but has also acted as a source of distraction and developed symptoms of anxiety amongst them. Mobile in the tourism sector has helped it grow and provide a boost to the industry and provide a better user experience. Overall, the impact of mobile technology has held along positive and negative effects over different aspects. It has been and shall remain the focus of various researches to define it as a boon or a bane.
Bhavnani, S. P., Narula, J. & Sengupta, P. P. (2016). Mobile technology and the digitization of healthcare In European heart journal. 37(18). pp 1428-1438.
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Criollo-C, S., Luján-Mora, S. & Jaramillo-Alcázar, A. (2018). Advantages and disadvantages of M-learning in current education In 2018 IEEE World Engineering Education Conference (EDUNINE). pp 1-6. IEEE. DoI: 10.1109/EDUNINE.2018.8450979
Dickinson, J. E., Hibbert, J. F. & Filimonau, V. (2016). Mobile technology and the tourist experience:(Dis) connection at the campsite. Tourism management. 57. pp 193-201.
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