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  • Subject Code :
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  • Subject Name : Agriculture

Project Control and Management




Literature Review..

Planning the project

Specification, requirements, Resources plan.

Basic concept

Market analysis

List of components:





Moisture Sensor

Temperature Sensor

Software implementation:

13) Final project evaluation.

14) Conclusion and Future work.


Abstract on Precision Agriculture Low Cost Toolkit

Moving from the stage of thinking about water scarcity to adapting to water means a gradual transformation in the regions where it is less in amount. Africa (MENA) in technology and social innovation. Especially in Jordan, water scarcity is causing increasing stress on the balance in the management of water resources in relation to the increase in the population, as well as in the sectors of agriculture, energy, industry and development. In this project we will design a PALT system for agriculture in which a sensor based automatic system will be designed and implemented in order to make this process easier, faster, automatic and simpler which will require very less human interaction in the watering process of agricultural land and will reduce the wastage of water and will ensure the timely watering of the fields.

Introduction to Precision Agriculture Low Cost Toolkit

Man knew agriculture from the beginning of his life on the earth, and he produced the food he needed by planting plants in the earth and watering them with water and caring for them to provide him with the necessary food. And agriculture was in the past known as the science of land cultivation. Which complement each other's roles, and the water factor plays a fundamental role in this activity, because without it, agriculture cannot succeed, despite the presence of rainfed and irrigated crops, but it cannot be dispensed with permanently. This is called the irrigation process. Irrigation is called irrigation engineering and agricultural drainage as well, and it is the process of providing soil planted with a plant according to the age of this plant with the water necessary to complete its growth process. Soil Water is a natural factor without human intervention, such as rain and floods, and this is called artificial irrigation.

Irrigation began around 6000 BC in both Egypt and Mesopotamia. These ancient societies redirected the floodwaters of the Nile, the Tigris and the Euphrates between July and December, and after that, the water will drain back into the rivers. The first major irrigation project took place around 3100 BC in Egypt and included building dams and canals to divert flood water from the Nile River into an industrial lake called "Morris". Similar channel systems exist in pre-Columbus America, Syria, China, and India.

King Hammurabi was the first to establish water systems, including the distribution of water based on the cultivated area and the responsibilities of farmers to preserve canals on their property. The shadoof/shaduf column, a large balanced column on the crossbar with a rope and bucket attached to one end and counterweight at the other end, was invented around 1700 BC. This device works by pulling the rope to lower the bucket into a water source, then lift the bucket and swing around the electrode to the water fields or to transfer the water to another source. Irrigation is allowed when there is no flood and higher ground to be raised.

Around 700 BC, the Egyptian water wheel was developed. Using a technique similar to the current water wheels, this device drained water into channels or basins. This creation was the first lift that was not operated by humans. Not so long ago, it became the first technical channel for groundwater use by building a vertical well in the sloping ground. Tunnels dug horizontally through well water allowed for gravity travel. The Persian water wheel, also called the Sakaya, is the first known use of what we now know as a pump. This wheel was supported by the bulls. Around 250 BC, a Greek scientist invented a tambourine, which was a screw in an empty tube that was rotated to get water. Windmills were developed in AD 500 and evidence of their use in Persia (modern Iran).

Since ancient times, people have developed irrigation methods used to raise their production from the crop. The ancient Egyptians relied on flood water to irrigate their crops, such as wheat. They developed their tools used in irrigation, such as raising water from the depth to the surface of the earth’s surface. They also constructed canals to transport the Nile water to remote agricultural lands. From the river, we know that the people of Sheba constructed the great Ma'rib Dam to collect valley water and thus reduce flooding and use this water in agriculture to increase agricultural production. We hear about the famous springs in Hama to raise the water from the low level to a higher level for irrigation of crops. The Romans constructed open channels and clay pipes for long distances for drinking and agricultural purposes, as well as Muslims transporting vegetable water to Jerusalem for drinking purposes through clay pipes. Irrigation methods did not witness a noticeable development during the era of the industrial revolution three hundred years ago, as happened in other fields such as pest control and the development of new strains of plants, so irrigation methods remained the same as we used throughout the ages with open irrigation, despite the development of methods for transporting this water to fields. At the beginning of the century, researchers began developing irrigation methods, and they introduced irrigation under the surface of the soil using clay tubes and sprinkler irrigation methods, or open irrigation using metal pipes. Irrigation methods witnessed the beginning of a coup in the era of plastics since the thirties, where many researchers developed irrigation methods on the surface of the soil and the use of points using very clean water and low pressures, but the use of this method was limited until the sixties when it began to develop drip irrigation systems.

Around the world, irrigation seems to have begun with canals and reservoirs, despite the diversity of techniques of different cultures. The Sinhalese in Sri Lanka are called "irrigation masters" and they were the first to build artificial warehouses. The Chinese used various methods, including foot-operated chain pumps, hydraulic water wheels, or bull-driven mechanical wheels. A Korean engineer invented the first rain gauge in 1441, which allowed farmers to better use their investigative information. In Arizona, the United States, canals have been used to supply crops with water since 1200 BC. Modern irrigation technology may have originated in Mormon Settlement in the Great Utah Basin of Salt Lake around 1847.

The Egyptian approach is straightforward, but the blue is not the only problem that now poses a risk of growth in the expansion of industrial and agricultural initiatives, as well as healthy growth. The science of discipline is recognized and only one of the four main branches of agricultural engineering is recognized. It is important to regulate the way in which the method is used to add water to increase the plant's need for water. In fact, it is more likely that you will be able to use it in quantities than you can afford. Ensure adequacy of the system of management and proper management of the system. The use of agricultural resources in Egypt is estimated to be 85%. If we look at Egypt in the first place, we find that the share of the individual in the world is more than the amount of water, which is 1000 m3 per year. Therefore, Egypt has no choice but to limit the increasing population and rationalize the use of water by adopting advanced irrigation systems from spraying and dotting in new lands, which are difficult to use surface irrigation and increase water resources in the direction of desalinating sea water and using renewable energy from the sun and wind, as well as using nuclear energy to generate electricity. This book aims to give the student a general idea about irrigation systems, their types, characteristics, method of operation and operation. It should be noted that it is not meant to mention irrigation systems to overlook the talk about drainage systems. The agricultural drainage system must be associated with the irrigation system even in desert lands. The book contains a chapter on the general basics of irrigation related to the water relations of plants, soil, water consumption and irrigation scheduling.

Types of irrigation are classified into two main types, which are: Natural irrigation: It is the process of delivering water to the soil planted with plants without any interference from the human element, and that is either with rain or floods or those that are on the course of rivers. Industrial irrigation: It depends entirely on human intervention, as the process of supplying the soil planted with water by humans using it is one of the common methods and methods of irrigation, including drip irrigation or spraying.

Common methods of surface irrigation are also called drench irrigation, during which water is collected on the surface of the earth and the plant is flooded with water, and it is classified into: Irrigation by water: It is also called rainfed or pure agriculture. Irrigation by means. Sprinkler irrigation: The plants and soil cultivated by obtaining irrigation water depend on the water sprinklers that are used to spread the water to fall on the plants as if they were artificial rain, and they are divided into several groups:

According to the spray method, this is spray and fog. Depending on the method of operation:

it is fixed, mobile, semi-mobile or mobile. According to the extent of spraying, it is divided into: a distance of more than twenty-five meters. A distance of between twelve and eighteen meters, short-range, and only less than eight meters is kept. Drip irrigation: It is a means of supplying the cultivated plants with the least possible amount of water to ensure the plant's survival without waste and without scarcity. Axial Irrigation: This type of irrigation depends on placing a long tube that is characterized by its rotation on one side and is similar to the arm, communicates with a source or supplied with water, and works on irrigation in the form of a semicircle parallel to the length of the pipe. The benefits of irrigation water play a fundamental role in dissolving the nutrients contained in the soil and providing them with plant roots. It activates bacteria that play an effective role in enabling the roots to absorb the organic materials contained in the soil by analysing them. It gives the soil a moderate temperature and makes it suitable for plants to live in. It gets rid of excess salts and harmful substances to plants

Literature Review of Precision Agriculture Low Cost Toolkit

The idea of the Internet of things is as old as the Internet itself, but what is tainted is that its idea has not settled so far in people's minds when it comes up for discussion there are people who are keen on apps smart homes There are those who believe in its uses in the medical field only, but the reality of Internet of things is that it has many uses and applications in different aspects of life, which is what this project will use in the implementation. His explanation also deals with the development of the concept and its spread and some exciting challenges about this technology and what is the future of the application of this technology in irrigation, libraries and the possibility to benefit from them.

PALT control system is a relatively modern terminology that has been covered in many various issues and areas; he has received several definitions, the most prominent of which is the Gartner definition is the leader in IT as a network of physical objects or entities technology that enables it to communicate, feel or interact, either internally or in an external environment and helps in the smart irrigation of the agricultural land. As it was previously defined, the term Internet of Things refers to a group of entities and things used daily and interconnected through one network and often these devices are provided with smart elements. Animals or people have unique identifiers that enable them to transmit data online without the need to one-to-person or person-to-computer interaction. Custom (Morgan, 2014)

It is a gigantic network of interconnected things that can also include people, the communication here will be from person to person or person to do or something to prefer. The researcher believes that the simplified definition of the Internet of things is a group of entities or Smart devices connected to the Internet that can interact with each other or interact with humans to do so set of tasks assigned to it. The Internet of Things binds entities and objects to one another through an identifier for each whether these entities are mobile phones, home appliances such as air conditioners and coffee makers, lamps household or anything else as long as these entities or things are connected to the Internet and have the ability to sensing, transmitting data and interacting with each other or interacting with people. Therefore, we find that the technology adopted in the Internet of things includes several elements to achieve the tasks entrusted to it

Things as listed below:

1. A unique identifier for each device or entity that will be connected to the Internet.

2. Sensors for each device or entity to measure different aspects and effects of it.

3. A medium for communication between these devices and entities, in which case the Internet is.

4. A medium for storing data collected from entities and devices for analysis and control.

As soon as the term Internet of Things is mentioned, many refrigerators are shopping for their mind the home is just finished or near completion, and others may leave smart homes with applications such as energy, lighting, room temperature and fire sensor ... etc.

But when we look at industrial and commercial applications of the Internet of things, we find it playing an important role in the production units, security and many different fields of industry providing automation to those processes. The volume of technical companies' investments in services IoT-based products have reached over $ 300 billion and the financial return for this is investment in 2020 could reach $ 9.1 trillion as a product of sales in different markets, as well. Cisco, the telecom and Internet Company expects the number of connected devices to arrive from through the Internet of things to 50 billion devices by 2020. The term Internet things are used things of Internet, referred to as IOT for the first time in 1999 by Kevin Ashton –

He is considered one of the English pioneers in the field of information technology, and he contributed to founding a working group titled Labs ID-Auto of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology contributed to the development framework for RFID technology - Ashton has used the term Internet

Things for the first time while working on a company Gamble & Procter project. This is to improve the management of their supply system by linking data based on Internet radio frequencies. We find from this the Internet of things invasion of many fields and sectors such as the industrial sector and a sector of healthcare and household equipment sector. For example, we find in the field of health care the spread of things Internet applications where it became possible to follow the health conditions of patients and cases critical with a bracelet to monitor the patient's condition and monitor heart rate, temperature and blood pressure and the level of sugar in the body and the device, digestive system as well as sending the information to the doctor for analysis and take appropriate medical action and see this potential through a product launched by Apple It is represented by the 4 Series Watch Apple which is a smart watch for body movement and contact in an emergency, if the patient lost consciousness or fell and the patient was located, she can also measure the rate of heart beats are and also able to examine the heart and alert the patient of an irregular heartbeat, which helps the patient is required to take the necessary procedure promptly to consult the attending physician. We also find that Microsoft implemented the Internet of Things in the domains various programs through one of its Azure Microsoft software that has been applied in the manufacturing.

Agricultural water needs represent about 60% of the total water needs in Jordan (51% of 2014 estimates) of water. And if the improved standards for water use efficiency are not met or not used for irrigation, including treated wastewater implemented, the agricultural sector in Jordan, its farmers and groundwater reserves will face stricter challenges as demand increases On water in the local sector by 50 to 60% after 32 years (by 2050), as the local sectors

And agriculture is more water-consuming.

In countries, deficiencies in irrigation networks that lead to uneven water distribution in the irrigation system are due to the following:

  • Low pressure for supplied water, as traditional points is unable and not equipped to distribute evenly.
  • The lack of quality standards for drip irrigation connections available in the market, and even those that are available, may leak the network when the pressure is high.
  • In addition, it is possible to design a drip irrigation network that depends on water pressure) even with water pressure

Low (but generally farmers do not have the technical knowledge or resources to design their networks under low pressure

The funded LEDIMC-U drip irrigation system initiative is aimed at By USAID, to improve irrigation methods by bridging the gap the absence of applicable technology, and general knowledge in the design of irrigation systems able to adapt to the conditions around by providing irrigation innovation that enables farmers to achieve equal distribution of water in their fields under low pressure.

By reducing the energy needed to distribute water evenly through the irrigation system, the project goal is to improve the efficiency of use water and equal distribution of water. This is achieved by inserting a sample of points (device installed on the lines of the irrigation system

Drip designed to release water directly and steadily to the roots of crops), designed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT - GEAR Laboratory, to pave the way for less energy, solar powered drip irrigation system

The second stage: Line In points is designed to be verified and field tested in more than 8 farms vegetables and crops with payoff. In the event of an electricity source or lack of quality, the system will be designed, developed and tested during this stage.

It started on September 20, 2016, and the drip irrigation system project will continue to consume less energy in the Middle East and North Africa until September 19, 2019. In Jordan, in the first year, Mira was the link between MIT's GEAR laboratory and farmers to facilitate understanding of the context in Jordan, including the costs of agricultural support and the strengths and weaknesses of the agricultural sector.In addition, Mira started a typical test on farms in both Mafraq and the Jordan Valley (Sharhabil) as well.

These points have so far demonstrated their ability to distribute water evenly at low pressure, as well as equal water distribution treated sewage, an important source of irrigation water in Jordan in the future. During the second year of the project, the Mira team concluded Phase A-1 by integrating additional farms into field work and testing models Dots, starting stage B-1 using a solar pump to power the low-energy irrigation system, and starting stage 2 with an insert Inner Low Pressure Points (Line In.) Several achievements were made in connection with work at the three project sites in Jordan: Ramtha Station and Mafraq Farm Sharhabeel Bin Hasna Station.

The Ramtha plant was a site of special importance, although no crops were cultivated on the site during this work period general, where the station was previously equipped with a line-on irrigation system based on wastewater treated. Treated wastewater is of particular importance in this project as it represents a unique set of challenges and opportunities. This water source includes an increase in the burden of blockage of points. However, the use of treated wastewater in Jordanian agriculture is expected to increase as a means to offset the increasing demand for water in other sectors. Although treated wastewater caused in fact some problems (stimulating weed growth) but controlling irrigation times reduced their growth and demonstrated models the points are their ability to reach the desired result of the project. As a result, the irrigation system showed little energy consumption in Ramtha

To the agricultural community there is no need to avoid more effective and efficient means of providing water for crops for fear of clogging. Mafraq farm is the site for testing the ability of points in a farm that is characterized by a wide spread of orchards. The measurements were taken

For several branches of trees selected, to test the effect of point use on tree growth as well as on the quality of production crops the weight of the crop was measured at the end of the season.

Although there were many challenges in the study, the challenges were also the common obstacles faced the farmers. Mafraq Farm is a farm inhabited by expatriate families who have resided and worked on the farm since 1970 change (the national need to conserve water and / or use it efficiently while maintaining the economic viability of operations, no especially in the agricultural sector (in traditional means of farm management. Not long after setting up the irrigation system with dots and the system was tampered with by the farm workers. Where the amount of pressure water pressure valve opening was changed in the absence of the Mira team

The site also removed the rubber pieces inside the points by farm workers in order to increase the amount of water flowing from the point. As a result, addressing these issues has become a significant achievement for the Mira team to educate farm workers on the nature of the project, and ensuring that these points do not reduce the amount of water that reaches the crops, but rather increases the efficiency of water distribution on all crops. Also, due to the on-site pump, which is used to supply the irrigation system with water, its shutdowns were electricity cuts are frequent in the summer months. In order to obtain electrical energy, solar panels were installed for operating the devices and sensors sufficiently and measuring the equal distribution of water that is connected by points. In general, there was a technical and social challenge by combining knowledge with the proper installation and operation of point models. Cal has been contained two challenges in Mira's approach are to ensure that the points are tested as a few points the energy consumption of a private farm like a farm divider

As for Sharhabeel Bin Hasna station, the irrigation system in orange and pomegranate orchards has been radically transformed by installing an irrigation system drip and scratch points. Of course, creating the on-site irrigation system was only part of the challenge. Improvement has resulted the irrigation system has since been monitoring the clogs. The water source was an irrigation pond consisting of a mixture of spring water and water from the Jordan River and the Wadi Al-Arab Dam, fish live and contain algae, and chemical cleaning operations have resulted the multiuser used by the Mira team to remove the problem based on science and knowledge. Mira is not only a specialist in techniques irrigation systems also integrate farmers into capacity building.

At Sharhabeel Station, the Mira team was not always present to record the readings of the pressure gauge and flow amount as well as to maintain appropriate pressure. Initially, station staff did not have the ability to reliably collect and record data. But finally, the processes of communication and linking knowledge and technology led to an ideal and informed context for measuring the ability of points on distribute water evenly to crops. By the end of the first year, Mira invited the farmers to participate in a field day at Sharhabeel Station, and they witnessed how it is possible the drip irrigation system has low energy consumption that works for them. Many brochures have been prepared to educate farmers about the importance of drip irrigation, as well as introducing them to points with low energy consumption. Over 45 farmers attended and listened to management methods irrigation systems as an essential part of agricultural production in Jordan: starting with the importance of filters and how to clean them, and using a system fertilization and algae removal, sensors and pressure gauges enter and activate new and vital options for agriculture Jordanian.

The first year of the project was marked by Mira's relentless efforts to check the points of low energy consumption on several farms represented various agricultural practices and conditions in Jordan. Once all the basic data were dealt with in each farm and the variables that would lead to inaccuracy in the study results. The examination process was started under ideal conditions and was collected the necessary data. By the end of the year, tests of equal water distribution led to proven results of point performance and the possibility of securing a sustainable future for the sector. Agricultural sector in Jordan by achieving positive results, as irrigation was done using different sources of water (treated wastewater) groundwater (distributed equally in all selected locations with a small fraction of the required energy.

The term Internet of Things is a broad term under which many applications fall under its umbrella hardware is a slightly confusing term for Internet users in general and information specialist In particular, this article seeks to clarify the concept of the Internet of Things and the technology based on it. It includes several points as IoT applications in different fields that can be used in libraries and information institutions, the benefits and opportunities of implementing IoT in libraries and institutions Information and challenges facing these applications. The

Information institutions have implemented the Internet of Things to provide their services and activities

Finally, it reviews the future of Internet of Things in libraries and information institutions and Precision Agriculture (PA), Environmental factor on farming, Greenhouse Effect

Planning the Project

The project was planned in the following stages which were completed during the implementation of this project.

  • Literature review

At this stage there was a detailed literature review was organized to study all the areas where this technique can be implemented, its effects on the human life and the possible ways to implement.

  • Market analysis

This stage involved the complete market survey for this prject in order to find the area where this project needs to be focused, which will be our targeted audience and how to implement this project and if there is any similar project available in the market or not.

  • Aims and objectives

This stage involves setting the outcomes and the results of the project. So this plays an important role in the project because we will implement only the goals that are selected at this stage and then the whole project will be move in the direction where we will achieve the final outcomes of the project decided at this stage.

  • List if components

After deciding the aims and objectives of this project, we will search for the list of components required for the implementation of this project. Either the components are available or not and what will be their price in the market. And also what will be the final cost of our project and if it is feasible to create at this cost or not.

  • Software implementation

This stage is the software based simulation of project where we will assemble the circuit in a software based virtual environment to test the results of the project in the software.

  • Hardware implementation

Once the results of software simulation are achieved then we can move to the hardware implementation of the device where all the components will be assembled and wired to give it a final product shape, ready to implement and test in the real environment.

  • Analysis

This stage involves the testing and analysis of the results of the product and if it is working fine and giving the same results as was decided at the stage of aims and objectives. This stage tells us if our project is working fine or there are some errors in it.

  • Conclusions

At this stage, on the bases of analysis of previous stage there will be a conclusion made which will tell us if the product is ready to go and work according to our decided milestones or it is showing abnormal behaviour.

  • Future work

Here we will discuss if there are any further modifications required in the implementation of the project or not and what role will this project play in the future and how we can modify it further to get better results.

Specification, Requirements, Resources Plan

For the implementation of this project we will have to get the components like arduino uno, moisture sensor and temperature sensor. We will also need diodes and transistors. There will also be the need of LED’s resistors and LCD. Software like atmel studio and proteous will also be used for the software implementation of the project.

Basic Concept

The basic concept behind the implementation of this project is that the use able water of world is reducing and with the increase in the population of the world, there is a huge increase in the food and water requirements of population. To fulfil the needs of population we have to convert the salty water of the sea in useable for and also we have to sue the water wisely in order to avoid from wasting this water. The smart water irrigation system or of PALT system for agriculture is basically the use of technology for the betterment of the agriculture and increase the production as well as saving the water from its excess use and reducing its production. So it works in such a way that we just install the circuit with the water motor and place the sensors to monitor different factors such as the moisture in the soil and also the temperature and previous watering data to make and intelligent system that will help us in saving the water and better irrigation. The temperature sensor senses the value of temperature of surrounding and the moisture sensor senses the moisture level in the soil. If the moisture in the soil is less than the defined level it will turn on the water motor and make the moisture level to the defined level and then turn off the motor. In general it will help us in human effort free irrigation system which will not require any human for the irrigation of the fields and it will be a self-operating system that will control the irrigation process of the agricultural land.

Market Analysis

The irrigation system plays very important role in the agricultural production. If the fields are irrigated properly and timely then the production of the crop is higher than the others and also the cost is also less. There are a number of techniques which are being adopted in the countries to save the water from the excessive use such as drip irrigation. There is also a large amount of energy required to water the fields. Similarly there should be a continuous observation of fields to see which one needs to be watered and which one not. In such cases there should be a number of human beings to monitor the fields and also water them which ultimately cost more and also in case of any human error there will be a chance of loss in or damage to the crop

Risk and Cost Analysis

Following is the cost of the components required for this project. There are few risk related to the installation of this project. As this project will be installed outside so it could be stolen. Since the wiring is involved in it so in case of any misconnection the machine could not be able to control the watering process. If there is any error in the calculation of moisture sensor or in the temperature sensor then it may keep the motor on which ultimately over water the fields.





Arduino uno

























List of components:

Arduino UNO

Arduino is a development Board that consists of an open source electronic circuit with a microcontroller on a single board that is programmed by computer and designed to make the process of using interactive electronics in multidisciplinary projects more easily. Designing interactive electronic projects or projects that aim to build different environmental sensors (such as temperature, wind, pressure, etc.) can be build using arduino. Arduino can be connected to different programs on a personal computer. Arduino relies in its programming on the open source programming language, and the programming codes for Arduino language are similar to C ++ programming language, and it is considered one of the easiest programming languages used in writing microcontroller programs. The story begins in 2005 in the Italian city of Ivrea, where "Massimo Banzi", in cooperation with David Cuartielles and Gianluca Martino, launched the Arduin of Ivrea project, and the project was named after the most famous historical figure in the city. The main goal of the project was to create a microcontroller development environment for the microcontroller in a 100 per cent open source image.

This project included the work of a programmatic development environment for microcontrollers Integrated Development Environment, which is free at the same time. It also included the work of development Boards small size development at a small cost, currently amounting to approximately $ 27 to be able to Students and hobbyist technicians carry their price, and as of 2013, more than 700,000 Arduino boards had been shipped. In fact, there are a lot of Micro-Controllers available in the market, such as Parallax, Basic Stamp, Netmedia's BX-24 Phidgets and Raspberry Pi, all of which have strong capabilities and have the ability to control various electronic parts and software, of course with a varying preference ratio. But what distinguishes Arduino is a group of things that make the difference between him and others, the most important of which are: Simplicity: The Arduino is designed to suit everyone's needs, professionals, professors, students and amateurs of interactive electronics.

The price: The Arduino board is less expensive compared to other boards of the same type. The price of the most expensive Arduino does not exceed $ 50.

Self-Assembly: You can download the Arduino Datasheet for free from the official website and buy the parts and install them yourself!

Multi-platform: Arduino has the ability to run on Windows, Mac OS and Linux and most other electronic controls only run on Windows only.

An easy and simple programming environment: The Programming Environment is designed to be easy for beginners, stable, and powerful for professionals. Open Source Software: It is written in C ++ and available for everyone to download and programmers can modify it according to their needs.

Open Source Hardware: Arduino is primarily made of ATMEGA8 and ATMEGA168 controllers, and the diagrams are published under a Creative Commons license allowing electronic circuit designers to design their own circuit.

 Arduino types

There are more than 40 types of Arduino Boards, differing in capabilities, shape, size and price to suit all ideas and designs, but the most important and most widespread are:

Arduino Uno: the best choice for beginners to discover the world of Arduino, simple and easy to use and suitable for most extensions and shields.

Arduino Nano: It has the same control used in UNO, i.e. they have the same capabilities, but it is characterized by its small size

Arduno Mega: depends on ATmega2560 controller. What distinguishes it is that it has the largest memory between the other Arduino pieces and more entrances and exits Input / Output, the best and largest Arduino you can get, is for large projects.


Electrical transformer is a device used to reduce or raise the voltage for a certain amount of electrical power and it transmits energy from one coil to another through a magnetic field in an iron core. The transformer consists of two electrical circuits intertwined by a magnetic circuit. One of these two circuits is the high-voltage coil and the other is the low-voltage coil. As for the magnetic circuit, it is an iron core. As the transformer is considered a very high-efficiency equipment it does not cost the circuit in which it is installed except simple electrical losses. It is an extremely efficient device - and it is important Note that all materials do not have a magnetic conduction property, which is known as magnetic conduction - air, for example, is not a good medium for passing magnetic lines as well as copper, while iron is a good medium for conducting a magnetic field in addition to having a retaining property, which is an important property of iron and whenever it is Iron is more solid as the amount of remaining magnetic lines increases, but large retention values are undesirable for transformers, so soft core is preferred.

The heart and the windings are the main components of the transformers; the heart represents the magnetic circuits and allows the passage of the magnetic flux. The heart is usually defined as a closed magnetic circuit that allows the passage of a closed magnetic flame. The electrical current in it and the core of the transformer are made of thin strips of iron and not a solid piece of steel - so that the resistance to the passage of hurricane currents does not decrease and their value rises - because with the passage of the alternating magnetic flux through these slices, electrical forces are also generated by the magnetic effect causing the creation of electric currents in paths Locked in the iron core of the transformer and known as cyclonic currents - EDDY CURRENT - causes, of course, the heat of the iron core and consequently a loss of energy - and scientifically it is not possible in any case to get rid of cyclones, but they are reduced as much as possible - and so the heart is manufactured Of equal thin strips of steel that are isolated from each other by a layer of insulation material and the silicon material is added to the steel because the silicon material increases the coefficient of resistance to the steel without affecting the magnetic properties .

There are also some of the main components of the transformer main tank and there are many types of them according to the type The cooling used for the transformer, for example, if we assume that the transformer is of an oil type, according to the properties of the oil there is an expansion of the oil and the volume increases - and when the oil transformer is turned on at full load and at the maximum ambient temperature, the oil volume can increase to 8% and from here the idea of adding a tank Reserve the CONSERVATOR so that the original tank is filled with oil while leaving a distance to expand to the reserve tank and the tank is connected to a pipe through which the oil expands.- And there are also the main components of the main tank transformer and there are many types of them according to the type of cooling used for the transformer. For example, if we assume that the transformer is of the oil type, according to the properties of the oil there is an expansion of the oil and the volume increases - and when the oil transformer is turned on at full load and at the maximum Ambient temperature can increase the volume of the oil to 8%, hence the idea of adding a CONSERVATOR reserve tank so that the original tank is filled with oil while leaving a distance to expand to the reserve tank and the tank is connected to a pipe that expands the oil through it.

And there are also the main components of the main tank transformer, and there are many types of them according to the type of cooling used for the transformer. For example, if we assume that the transformer is of the oil type, according to the properties of the oil, there is an expansion of the oil, so the volume increases - and when the oil transformer is turned on at full load and at the maximum Ambient temperature can increase the volume of the oil to 8%, hence the idea of adding a CONSERVATOR reserve tank so that the original tank is filled with oil while leaving a distance to expand to the reserve tank and the tank is connected to a pipe that expands the oil through i


The diode consists of combining two P-type semiconductors with a negative (N-type) and thus we get a diode that has very useful properties, the most important of which is to transfer electrical current in one direction only.diode-85044 The diode has two ends. The elevator (positive pole) and cathode (negative pole). The cathode is indicated by a circular silver line on the valve body. When the elevator voltage is positive for the cathode and greater than 0.7 V in the case of silicon (this voltage is called a link voltage) the electric current passes. Only a small current passes, which is almost non-existent when the elevator voltage is negative for the runway. Note the following image.


It is an electronic device that regulates the flow of current and electronic signals in electrical circuits, and it is made of semiconductor materials. It was invented at Bell Labs in the 1940s, to later be replaced with large electronic vacuum tubes to increase latency, and amplify power in electrical circuits. The name transistor is composed of the words Transfer Resistor, For components Transistors have different compositions according to usage, and the bipolar transistor - the most common type - consists of a tainted hybrid semiconductor crystal, in which there are three regions; The two ends are of the same pattern, and the middle of the opposite pattern. The middle region of it is called the base and it is indicated by the letter B, and the two peripheral regions one of them is called the emitter and symbols the letter E, and the other is called the collector and its symbol C.


LCD is an electronic component that is used for the representation of the results and data in a visual manner. There are different types of LCD being used including 122x32, 128x64, 128x128, 144x32x 160x128, 160x160, 160x32, 160x80, 192x64, 192x128, 240x64, 320x240 and others. These LCD graphic modules include different options for polarizer inverter type, conveyor, or semi-inverter. LED backlighting in different colours including yellow / green, white, blue, red, amber, and RGB. These LCD graphic screens can be used on instrument cluster and automated industry equipment, as well as home appliances, consumer electronics, including white goods, POS, home applications, industrial equipment, automation equipment, audio / video display systems, and medical devices.

Moisture Sensor

It is a type of sensor that senses the amount of moisture at any place, soil or environment. This data from the sensor is used for decision making and processing that data.

Temperature Sensor

This is a sensor that senses the temperature in the surrounding and then transfers this data to the arduino unit.

Software Implementation

At this stage after researching a lot about the idea, components required and their properties this stage was the software implementation of this project. For the software implementation of this task I have selected Proteous as a simulation tool as it has a number of electrical and electrical components available to assemble. It has a choice to produce the PCB layout of the product and also the schematic diagram for the project. I created a new project file for the implementation of this project and then placed an arduino uno as a microcontroller to implement this project. Then I placed a voltage source and connected it with a step down transformer. The role of the transformer is to step down the supplied voltage to a specific level. The reason behind this step down voltage is that the components used in this project are voltage and current sensitive and when a high voltage is applied to them, they get damaged. Although the components do not get damage in the simulation tool but in the hardware but I tried to follow all the major requirements and criteria in order to get the more practical and more realistic results.

The step downed voltage then passes through the full bridge rectifier. This bridge rectifier consists of four diodes. The role of this bridge rectifier in this circuit is to convert AC into DC as the arduino works on the DC voltage. Then we placed the capacitors and resistors in the circuit. An NPN transistor was also placed in the circuit and an electromechanical relay was also placed in the circuit. This electromechanical relay works in such a way that when the current passes through the coil of the relay, it gets magnetize and and the part of the relay is connected to the line making it pass through the relay circuit and then turning on the water motor. A sensor is also placed in the circuit of number LM 35 to sense the temperature and another proximity sensor in order to monitor the moisture level in the soil. Power supply is provided to the arduino at its pin number 3 where Vcc is written. A 14*2 LCD is also placed in the schematic to connect it with the arduino to display the results in the form of digital data. Two resistors are connected at the pin number 2 and 13 of the arduino to show to display if there is enough moisture in the soil or not.

When there is enough moisture in it the green light is blinking and if there is not enough moisture in the soil then the red light will start blinking. The reason behind connecting these resistors serially with the LED’s is that these LED’s start blinking under the influence of very minor current and if the supplied voltage is high and also the passing current then these LED’s get damaged. Safety is one of the major focuses during the implementation of this project. The temperature sensor is connected to Vcc and arduino pin number A0. It gives the data to the arduino pin which then decides its function according to the program on which the arduino is programmed. Similarly the moisture sensor is also connected and sending the data to the arduino which then helps the arduino to monitor the temperature and moisture level in the soil and making decisions based on this data. LCD is connected serially with pin number 4, 5,6 and 7 of the LCD . Similarly the pins of LCD are also connected with the voltage source and the other one is connected to the ground. For writing the code for this project, software named as Atmel studio is used in which the code was written in C language.

The code was written in such a way that when the circuit is in operational form it will start behaving like an automatic sensor based irrigation system in which the moisture and the temperature is monitored properly and if moisture is less in the soil then it will turn on the motor and starts watering the fields. After writing the code we make the .hex file of this C language based written code and the next step was the installation of this hex file in the arduino. Fot his purpose the arduino is connected with the laptop in case of hardware and in case of software we simply burned the code in arduino to behave accordingly. Without this burned code arduino is just a device knowing nothing to do. It is forms of small computer to whom we teach first through programming code that how to behave under specific command and then it starts working accordingly. There are a number of languages that we can use in order to program an arduino and there are different softwares to do so as we have to only burn .hex file in the arduino which is a machine oriented language.

But we used C as it is a general language having a number of resources and help material available on the internet. At any stage if we face any hurdle or difficulty then we can search for the solution of that particular issue and we will get enough help to resolve that point. This software implementation of both the circuit and programming was based on the rules to be considered in hardware. The motor was connected with the relay. This motor is a water pump. It is connected with the relay in order to control it so that it can be turned on when it is needed in case of less moisture level and higher temperature in to design this PALT system for agriculture. This relay is being controlled by the signal from the arduino. When there is not enough moisture in the soil our system will send a signal to the relay which is normally in open mode and when it gets the signal from the arduino it will go to the closed position and this closed position of the relay will turn on the water motor. Thus our made PALT system will make this agriculture process automatic.

Final Project Evaluation

This stage was the final testing and implementation of this project. At this stage we tested the project if it is working fine under certain circumstances or not and then observed the behaviour of this project. We designed this PALT control system to make the irrigation process more reliable and easier and also water saving for the environments and the areas where more water was required and the resources are very limited. So we placed the sensor in their places to get the data from the environment to process this data through the arduino in order to automate the process. Moisture sensor senses the amount of moisture in the soil and transmits this to the arduino. Similarly the temperature sensor senses the temperature in the area to transmit it to the arduino. This data is then collected and processed in the arduino uno unit to see the values and compare them with the values stored in the program.

If the moisture level in the soil is less than the defined limit in the program then it turns on the water pump. This water pump starts watering the fields. Once the moisture level is reached to a specific upper limit, which means that the moisture in the soil is enough for the field, it turns off the water pump and stop watering the field. Similarly if the temperature is high and the soil does not have enough moisture, it will also turn on the water motor. Thus this circuit helps in the smart irrigation system which reduces the human effort and make the whole process more systematic and more reliable by saving the amount of water from being wasted. It also saves the energy from wasting and overwatering to the plants as it can also damage the plants and can reduce the production. Thus at this stage of evaluation when the sensor was placed in the soil where the moisture level was very low, it turned on the motor and once the specific moisture level was reached it turned off the motor. Then we evaluated the performance of temperature sensor by placing the device in a place where the temperature was higher than the defined limit and again the system turned on the motor and then turned off once the higher level of moisture in the soil was sensed by the moisture sensor.

Conclusion and Future Work

Irrigation system in the agriculture plays a very important role in the yield. If the plants are monitored properly and watered on time then their yield increases and if in case of plants are over watered or they are not irrigated for a long time then they will get damaged and the yield will be very low. Irrigation systems are many and multiple but they are systems obstructing modern agricultural developments. Water and energy are greatly wasted. They waste time, money and effort. It makes repair and maintenance a burden for every farmer who hopes for an easy and comfortable system that achieves good, prosperity and prosperity. The appropriate system is (Floppy Sprinkler) the latest irrigation system in the world, because it will achieve for you and your farm the principle of sustainability Floppy Sprinkler has developed highly efficient sprinkler irrigation technology. The Phlobe system provides you with water and energy, and it increases production amazingly. International large-scale irrigation projects have used this technology and many farmers around the world have benefited greatly from the advantages of this unique abundant system.

Remember that it is the system of the Floppy Sprinkler that features the following easy to operate, little maintenance required, long service life of the machine, but it rarely breaks down. It fits all lands, whatever their size or shape, because it simply does not need levelling the land. It is time to start operating the Floppy Sprinkler system and implement it on agricultural lands, to set up all investment projects and grow all kinds of trees and crops without any obstacles. Smart irrigation system and PALT control system for irrigation in agriculture is very good implementation of the technology in this field and it has made the watering of fields very easier and very efficient. It can help to save a large amount of water from wasting it. It is very efficient system that keeps on monitoring the soil condition and whenever there is a need of the water to the fields, it will automatically turns on the motor. This can help in the improvement of yield of the land and can help the humans by reducing the human effort.

As it can calculate the temperature and thus by monitoring the data of the temperature it can save the data and on the bases of that data we can predict the weather in the next seasons and also the countries and places where the water is less, this can help them to save the water and thus less water will be wasted. In homes and gardens where there should be continuous care of the plants is required, this project can help in the irrigation as if we install this project in the garden, then it will automatically water the plants and there will be no need of care taker to visit the plants on daily bases. In simple words this project is the future of irrigation system which will make this process easier. By using IOT with this project, the user will be able to see the live data of his farms and will be able to stop or turn on the water motor and irrigation system at any time. Today, several types of irrigation systems are used, such as surface irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, sub-irrigation, and more. Farmers choose the most appropriate method for the area, crops and available resources.

Irrigation has changed human patterns by allowing people to have a stable source of livelihood that can be cultivated widely. In addition, it allowed civilizations to survive and thrive in harsh environments and to live in these areas permanently. However, it also affected society in negative ways. The elites have a monopoly over the control of water and arable land, and of course technical challenges have arisen due to distribution, pollution and drought. The development of irrigation contributed to the establishment of the "civilized" world and the growth of engineering, especially hydraulics. Examples of the effects of irrigation In the Mesopotamian valley, Syria, Egypt and elsewhere in the Middle East, the lack of understanding of salt and drainage management has caused permanent damage to the land. The development of irrigation increased interest and expansion in scientific fields, such as chemistry, physics, minerals, and biology, which were later adapted for new subspecialties of soil chemistry, plant physiology, soil physics, and agricultural science. Irrigation has led to an increased focus in the field of hydraulic energy and water, thus enabling humans to develop dams for hydroelectric power, flood control, and to encourage stability and stability of borders with small population concentrations. Irrigation helped to stimulate societies, as societies had to converge to manage irrigation projects, water distribution, etc., which in turn began to form more formal organizations and groups. Widespread irrigation appears to have brought about changes in weather patterns

References for Implementation of Precision Agriculture Low Cost Toolkit

Kumar Sahu and P. Behera, "A low cost smart irrigation control system," 2015 2nd International Conference on Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS), Coimbatore, 2015, pp. 1146-1152, doi: 10.1109/ECS.2015.7124763.

K. Namala, K. K. Prabhu A V, A. Math, A. Kumari and S. Kulkarni, "Smart irrigation with embedded system," 2016 IEEE Bombay Section Symposium (IBSS), Baramati, 2016, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/IBSS.2016.7940199.

K. Namala, K. K. Prabhu A V, A. Math, A. Kumari and S. Kulkarni, "Smart irrigation with embedded system," 2016 IEEE Bombay Section Symposium (IBSS), Baramati, 2016, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/IBSS.2016.7940199.

Ghosh, S. Sayyed, K. Wani, M. Mhatre and H. A. Hingoliwala, "Smart irrigation: A smart drip irrigation system using cloud, android and data mining," 2016 IEEE International Conference on Advances in Electronics, Communication and Computer Technology (ICAECCT), Pune, 2016, pp. 236-239, doi: 10.1109/ICAECCT.2016.7942589.

B. Saraf and D. H. Gawali, "IoT based smart irrigation monitoring and controlling system," 2017 2nd IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology (RTEICT), Bangalore, 2017, pp. 815-819, doi: 10.1109/RTEICT.2017.8256711.

Zhao, S. Lin, J. Han, R. Xu and L. Hou, "Design and Implementation of Smart Irrigation System Based on LoRa," 2017 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Singapore, 2017, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2017.8269115.

Parmenter, A. N. Jensen and S. Chiu, "Smart irrigation controller," IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology, Milwaukee, WI, 2014, pp. 394-398, doi: 10.1109/EIT.2014.6871796.

A. M. Leh, M. S. A. M. Kamaldin, Z. Muhammad and N. A. Kamarzaman, "Smart Irrigation System Using Internet of Things," 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on System Engineering and Technology (ICSET), Shah Alam, Malaysia, 2019, pp. 96-101, doi: 10.1109/ICSEngT.2019.8906497.

Khelifa, D. Amel, B. Amel, C. Mohamed and B. Tarek, "Smart irrigation using internet of things," 2015 Fourth International Conference on Future Generation Communication Technology (FGCT), Luton, 2015, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/FGCT.2015.7300252.

Shruthi, B. Selva Kumari, R. P. Rani and R. Preyadharan, "A-real time smart sprinkler irrigation control system," 2017 IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Instrumentation and Communication Engineering (ICEICE), Karur, 2017, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/ICEICE.2017.8191943.

Kondaveti, A. Reddy and S. Palabtla, "Smart Irrigation System Using Machine Learning and IOT," 2019 International Conference on Vision Towards Emerging Trends in Communication and Networking (ViTECoN), Vellore, India, 2019, pp. 1-11, doi: 10.1109/ViTECoN.2019.8899433.

Alomar and A. Alazzam, "A Smart Irrigation System Using IoT and Fuzzy Logic Controller," 2018 Fifth HCT Information Technology Trends (ITT), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2018, pp. 175-179, doi: 10.1109/CTIT.2018.8649531.

Monica, B. Yeshika, G. S. Abhishek, H. A. Sanjay and S. Dasiga, "IoT based control and automation of smart irrigation system: An automated irrigation system using sensors, GSM, Bluetooth and cloud technology," 2017 International Conference on Recent Innovations in Signal processing and Embedded Systems (RISE), Bhopal, 2017, pp. 601-607, doi: 10.1109/RISE.2017.8378224.

C. Meyer and G. P. Hancke, "Design of a smart sprinkler system," TENCON 2015 - 2015 IEEE Region 10 Conference, Macao, 2015, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2015.7372834.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Agriculture Assignment Help

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