Ans 2: The growth and development for preschool children in the age of 4-6 years is defined as per the developmental milestones. The normal growth and developmental physiology varies among different children as per their genetic inheritance patterns and parental combinations. The growth in preschool, children is differentiated into motor development, cognitive development and physiological development.
The preschool children show a significant gain in weight which is recorded as 6 grams on an average per day. Thus overall change in Body mass index is known with average weight 40 pounds and height is 40 inches (Doi et al., 2018). The normal vision is 20/20. The sleep patterns also show a change with progression in age for 11-13 hours and night and daytimes nap are mostly not present. A lot of research studies show that the preschool children show a growth in height which accounts to double their birth length.
The transformation of calm child into an energy package with bossiness, increased intelligence to explain needs.
This age is the time when there is huge spurt of development of imaginative ideas which they communicate to their adults and friends.
Development of improved movement which includes standing on one foot for ten seconds without falling. Children can easily do hops, somersaults and able to do skipping.
Some developmental milestones for hands and fingers include the copying of triangle and other geometric patterns with fingers. The children can dress up without any assistance and as per wish and choice.
The language milestones include recalling past story, and presents needs for the future, says the names of parents and home locality address(Doi et al.,2018).. The major cognitive milestones include increase in counting up to ten objects and colour recognition of basic colors.
The most important growth and development milestone is social and emotional intelligence which includes making friends to people they like and imitate their habits and actions. Also they understand the importance of rules like no TV or less usage of mobile, no breaking of things and become aware of their gender and speak as per their gender like him, her. They began to differentiate between imaginary dream world and the real world
But these are just general growth and development milestones. They may change due to change in socioeconomic status, family atmosphere, parenting skills and the sedentary lifestyle habits. The children may grow less than other children of their age due to malnutrition or due to genetic reasons. They may have less eyesight if they use electronic gadgets more. So different factors will influence the growth and development of preschool children and they imitate what they observe their parent’s actions, thus frequent fights between parents may result in timid and fearful behavior of child. Thus parents need to be aware of their child’s developmental milestones and consult a pediatric in case of abnormal growth and behavior.
Doi, L., Wason, D., Malden, S., & Jepson, R. (2018). Supporting the health and well-being of school-aged children through a school nurse programme: a realist evaluation. BMC health services research, 18(1), 664. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3480-4.
Pate, R. R., Brown, W. H., Pfeiffer, K. A., Howie, E. K., Saunders, R. P., Addy, C. L., & Dowda, M. (2016). An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial With 4-Year-Olds in Preschools. American journal of preventive medicine, 51(1), 12–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.12.003
Koukourikos, K., Tzeha, L., Pantelidou, P., & Tsaloglidou, A. (2015). THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY DURING HOSPITALIZATION OF CHILDREN. Materia socio-medica, 27(6), 438–441. https://doi.org/10.5455/msm.2015.27.438-441
Mistry, K. B., Minkovitz, C. S., Riley, A. W., Johnson, S. B., Grason, H. A., Dubay, L. C., & Guyer, B. (2012). A new framework for childhood health promotion: the role of policies and programs in building capacity and foundations of early childhood health. American journal of public health, 102(9), 1688–1696. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300687
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