• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : ENGT5220
  • University :
  • Subject Name : Management

Industrial Energy Systems


This paper broadly focuses on the manufacturing processes of cheese. These processes are focused on the basis of energy consumption or in other words the amount of the energy consumed in these manufacturing processes. The significant amount of energy being used in the processes are explained and how these processes consume more and more energy. There is a brief explanation included in this paper about energy consumption. Not only this but also the possibilities of cheese manufacturing facilities that how the renewable energies can be adopted or to what extent.

Further on, the consumption of energy or a significant amount of energy being consumed by the manufacturing process is illustrated using a Sankey Diagram. The conversion of the energy into different energies is also explained using the Sankey diagram. Different processes used different forms of energy for different purposes. Like the conversion of the electrical energy into thermal energy and used for heating purpose. Also, the adaptable renewable energy sources for such industry or facility is explained and how it can be helpful in reducing the cost of energy use.

Cheese Manufacturing Process

When it comes about the manufacturing of dairy products, there are the different process involved in providing the final product. This final product varies in quality with respect to the processes used in its manufacturing or to which extent and how the energy is used. In other words, some of the industries use energy saving conservation and saving methods in excess which somehow affect the quality of the product. Dairy products are consumed on a large basis, and many industries are keeping up the pace to provide the best quality. With the best quality, the focus is also to have strategic ways of saving energy.

This energy saving method includes conservation of the energy being used in the manufacturing process as well for other purposes. When it comes about the manufacturing of the Cheese. There are various steps or processes to manufacture cheese. Among these processes, comes different methods of energy use as well as energy conversion. When it comes to the manufacturing of Cheese, there are different processes which are followed. Some of them are done manually while some require an energy source to use.

Some of the industries still rely on manually using processes of preparing dairy products like cheese. While many industries focus on different components and machines to complete the process, this helps to achieve both goals for the industry of meeting goals of quality products as well as to save energy by using different methods like energy conversion and more. In manufacturing cheese, standardizing the milk is the first process in which milk is optimized before to start making cheese. To achieve a good quality product, milk is standardized,and the optimization takes place for protein to fat ratio to make a good quality cheese. There are several processes in manufacturing cheese which significantly uses a different form of energy. The given manufacturing processes are based on a significant amount of energy being used(Burnett Dairy, 2019).

  1. Pasteurization or Heat treatment of Milk

In this process, milk is pasteurized,or in other words, there is a process in which milk is heat treated to an extent. This heat treatment of the milk is for the purpose of eliminating or reducing the number of organisms which can be a result of spoilage of the milk. This can further lead to the bad quality of the cheese and difficulty in manufacturing a quality cheese. So, for the purpose of avoiding these outcomes, the pasteurization of the milk or heat treatment is the second process after standardizing of the milk takes place. Any harmful bacteria are eliminated in this process.

For this purpose, milk is heated to the temperature starts from 145 degrees to the 212 Fahrenheit degrees. This process is completed in the various amount of time. When the required temperature is achieved, the milk is then immediately cooled down to 39 degrees of Fahrenheit. This clearly describes the amount of heat energy used for the specific amount of time. Now, when it comes to the amount of cheese production or in other words, the goal to achieve the required quantity of cheese before the deadline. The amount of milk require for the pasteurization also varies or increases and so the energy required to heat treatment of the milk increases as well. This in result ends up with using more and more amount of the energy to pasteurize milk or significant use of energy in this process(IDFA, 2019).

This whole pasteurization process is to make sure that the required environment is sustained for the starter culture to grow. Starter cultures or in other words the metabolism of the starter culture plays their role in providing the flavour compounds which is desirable. Not only this, but starter culture also helps in the prevention of any kind of bacteria or organism which can be the result of spoilage.

  1. Cooling of the Milk

After the pasteurization process or Heat treatment process, the large amount of milk is then cooled down to almost 39 degrees of Fahrenheit. For this purpose, different industries used different types of equipment but made for the same purpose which is to cool down the milk to the required temperature. This temperature is for the purpose to form the environment for the starter culture to grow as already mentioned above and its role. For the purpose of cooling, refrigeration systems are used vastly in the dairy production industries. Refrigeration systems are also known as the consumer of electrical energy.

As it is clear that what the function of the refrigeration system is in different places, which of course is cooling. Dairy industry uses different refrigeration systems according to their needs or the ones which are best or meets their requirement. The major application of refrigeration system in such industries are the cooling of the milk, storage of the pasteurized milk or in other words the bulk storage of the pasteurized milk when it comes to the manufacturing of cheese especially. Other dairy products are also cooled using a refrigerationsystem.

Refrigeration system uses electrical energy on a large scale in the industry as more the quantity of cheese to be manufactured, more will be the amount of milk to be stored and cooled using a refrigeration system. Refrigeration system uses a significant amount of energy in the cheese manufacturing industry or in other words dairy production industry. It consumes the largest amount of electrical energy of industry(Brush, Masanet, & Worrel, 2011).

  1. Injecting with Non-Starter Bacteria & Starter Bacteria and Ripen

After the cooling process, another process which consumes thermal energy takes place for the purpose of injecting or in another word for inoculation of starter and nonstarter bacteria. Starter cultures and any nonstarter cultures or adjacent bacteria is added to the milk. This addition is for the purpose of gaining a taste of cheese(Gilliland, 2018). After the addition of starter and nonstarter bacteria is done, then the milk is heated and held at a temperature of 90 degrees Fahrenheit. This process keeps on constantly going for 30 minutes. This constant temperature is obtained and is not interrupted until it ripens

Thermal energy is used constantly for the purpose of ripening so that the bacteria can grow. After the bacteria grows, soon the fermentation begins. This fermentation in a result of repining up by providing constant heat using thermal energy results in lowering the pH level. This lowering of the pH level develops the flavour of the cheese required. This purpose of obtaining the flavour of the cheese requires the use of thermal energy for providing constant heat,and so this method uses a significant amount of thermal energy in the cheese manufacturing industry.

  1. Drain Whey

As Whey is the liquid which remains after the milk is curdled and strained in the process of manufacturing cheese. It is known as a byproduct which is formed in the manufacturing process of the cheese. It is necessary to remove this liquid whey from the cheese so that further processes can be continued and the remaining moisture is removed. For this purpose, different types of motors are used to perform the action of the separation of whey from the cheese. The motors used in this processor for the separation of whey from the cheese uses a significant amount of the energy.

In this process, motors help in draining whey from the cheese, and for this purpose, the motors used in the industry uses electrical energy and mechanical energy as well. This draining process depends on the amount of the whey produced which is according to the amount of cheese required to be manufactured. Larger the production quantity or goal to manufacture the cheese, a greater amount of time requires for the draining process. This greater amount of draining process leads to the consumption of more and more energy used by motors to separate the whey from the cheese(Paz, Goncalvez de Oliveira, Villalva, Armada, & Ramón, 2017).

  1. Store and Age

There are several processes after removing whey from the cheese. Going through several processes like Texturing of the curd, sprinkling the Brine or in other words dry salt on it and the formation of the blocks from cheese. Another step which consumes energy significantly is related to the storing and age of the cheese(Spieler, 2018). This storing of the cheese and ageing process also uses a significant amount of energy. For the purpose of storing the cheese and to meet the desired age of the cheese. It is stored into the coolers for a while. This storing is dependent on the required age of the cheese(Gilliland, 2018).

For example, cheese can be aged from a few months to several years. To make sure that the industry meets the desired age, as already mentioned that cheese is stored into the coolers. For this purpose, the refrigeration system is used. This is another reason that refrigeration system uses a significant amount of energy as they are also used for the purpose of cooling down the temperature of the milk after pasteurization as well as to store and age the cheese(Ewaschuk & Unger, 2015).

Sankey Diagram

Suitability of Renewable Energy

Dairy industry or in this case the cheese manufacturing industry can be suitable for renewable energy technologies. As cheese manufacturing uses electrical energy majorly, they can use renewable energy sources. There are various renewable energy sources present this day. Such industry should use the one which will not interrupt their different manufacturing processes. Not only should this but also meet the requirement of the energy used in the facility of cheese manufacturing(Anawar & Strezov, 2018). For example, there should be a proper and constant supply of energy on a large scale that all the processes goes on without any interruption in energy transmission. The type of renewable energy should be focused on the amount required and also to reduce the cost factor and also should have an effective way of energy consumption(Kumar, Kumar, Baredar, & Shukla, 2015).

In this case, using solar panel energy can be helpful. This will provide a renewable energy source to the facility as well as can provide effective cost. Using a solar panel can fulfil the energy consumption and reduce the cost of billing by using the standard electricity transmitted by the generation stations and having energy generated by solar panels will definitely help in reducing the cost. Another way which can be more effective one and can provide the required amount of energy to keep the manufacturing process running is to growing own fuel.

For this purpose, Oilseed crops such as sunflower, Soybean and canola. These plants can be grown for the pressed oil which can be used and burned in diesel engines. This will affect the cost and reduce the cost to some extent. This can be applied if the cost value of the actual energy is less than the growing and burning of the plants. Other crops which can be burned without extra processing are grain corn and switchgrass. Such crops can be beneficial in some of the dairy manufacturing processes or in other words, cheese manufacturing processes. This will also help in reducing the cost of energy used by the organization.


Anawar, H. M., & Strezov, V. (2018). Renewable Energy Production from Energy Crops: Effect of Agronomic Practices, Policy, and Environmental and Economic Sustainability. In Renewable Energy Systems from Biomass (pp. 89-101). CRC Press.

Brush, A., Masanet, E., & Worrel, E. (2011). Energy Efficiency Improvements and Cost Saving Oppertunities for the Dairy Processing Indsutry. An Energy Star Guid for Energy and Plant Managers, 58-65.

Burnett Dairy. (2019). Cheese Making Process. Retrieved from Burnett Dairy: https://www.burnettdairy.com/about-us/cheese-making-process

Ewaschuk, J. B., & Unger, S. (2015). Human milk pasteurization: benefits and risks. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 18(3), 269-275.

Gilliland, S. E. (2018). Bacterial Starter Cultures for Food: 0. CRC Press. Retrieved from UOGUELPH: https://www.uoguelph.ca/foodscience/book-page/starter-cultures

IDFA. (2019). Pasteurization. Retrieved from IDFA: https://www.idfa.org/news-views/media-kits/milk/pasteurization

Kumar, A., Kumar, N., Baredar, P., & Shukla, A. (2015). A review on biomass energy resources, potential, conversion and policy in India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 45, 530-539.

Paz, N. F., Goncalvez de Oliveira, E., Villalva, F. J., Armada, M., & Ramón, A. N. (2017, June 11). Effect of pH at drainage on the physicochemical, textural and microstructural characteristics of mozzarella cheese from goat milk. Food Science and Technology, 37(2), 193-201. Retrieved from Farm Curious.

Spieler, M. (2018). A Taste of Naples: Neapolitan Culture, Cuisine, and Cooking. Rowman & Littlefield.

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