• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : ENGT5220
  • University :
  • Subject Name : Sustainable development

Sustainable development Industrial Energy Systems Assessment Answer


This management report is the extensive study of a product that is a biscuit and its complete life cycle process from manufacturing to its disposal. This report will highlight five most significant forms of energy used in the manufacturing process of biscuit and its distribution. The report will briefly explain the energy used by each process and new renewable ways to decrease the consumption of energy in the organization (Perry et al. 2017). It will also provide a systematic understanding of the activities of industrial organizations at all points of the product life-cycle of biscuit.

Answer to Question 1:

The bakery business is a very large and competitive sector hence all the baking companies are working towards reducing the energy consumption to sustain in the competitive market environment. Sustainable energy consumption in this sector is not only about just installing some energy efficient technologies but also it is concerned regarding the establishment of a system which is committed to using energy in a more effective manner (Alvandi et al. 2016). The Energy consumption in the processes can be reduced by understanding the energy being used by equipment, it's processing, Packaging and distribution and precisely analyzing the ways to minimize it. The process involves many steps which include mixing, moulding, baking, cooling and packing. The machines used in the mixing process are dough making machines which majorly run on electricity (Van der Sman et al. 2018). It involves mixing the right amount of ingredients like flour, fat, and sugar in the right proportion to make the dough. Then punch machines are used to mould the dough into the desired shape and size according to the requirement. The moulded biscuits are then transferred into the baking machines which bake the biscuits according to the required temperature (Zurzolo et al. 2017). After that cooling conveyors are used to naturally reduce the temperature and then the biscuits go for packaging, after packaging the organization is responsible to distribute the product to the distributors.

The five major energy consuming machines can be explained as follows,

Baking machines are the ovens which basically work on natural gas or electricity. Most oven works on natural gas and it has the highest consumption of gas which is around 70 to 80 % of total natural gas consumption in the manufacturing process. The baking process uses around 17913 BTU/pound of energy to bake the biscuits at a constant temperature.

Cooling conveyors and refrigerators are the machines which consume a large amount of electric energy after baking machines (Madanet al.2015). According to the types of biscuit production, the two types of Cooling devices are mechanical cooling conveyers which cool the biscuit at the natural temperature and others are the refrigerators which are used for instant cooling. The rate of consumption of energy for cooling process is 15684 BTU/pound.

Mixers are of three types which are vertical spinder mixers, horizontal drum mixers and continuous mixers. It helps to mix a large amount of raw material at a time to make perfect dough with an accurate amount of ingredients. The mixing machine consumes approximately 4853 BTU/pound of energy for its process.

Shaping machines are used to mould the dough into the desired shapes. Normally punching machines put a pressure on the dough to convert them into the different shapes and size (May et al. 2015). Shaping machines consume approximately 1302 BTU/ pound of thermal energy for its processing.

Inbound transfer in the company is also the major consumer of energy. It involves the transfer of raw materials from storage to machines and also the final loading of the product for delivery for the next process. Its expected energy consumption is around 10 BTU/pound of production.

Air conditioning machines are used in the processing area because of the high temperature caused by ovens and due to the cooling process of biscuit. It helps to maintain the right temperature for baking biscuits and also maintains the temperature for the comfortable working of employees.

The energies on which the baking industry works are electrical energy and chemical energy which is in the form of natural gas. The main use of natural gas in the plant is in the baking process and there the conversion of energy takes place from chemical energy to the thermal energy (Arianyan el at. 2015). Natural gas is a chemical and when it is burned then it produces heat which is a form of thermal energy. Its efficiency is calculated around 85 to 90 % but it cannot exceed above 95% in any condition. The reason behind using natural gas for baking rather than electricity is its good efficiency and ease of conversion from one form to another. As it is known that for the cooling process the two methods are natural cooling through conveyor belts and other is through refrigeration. In the process of natural cooling through mechanical conveyors, electric energy gets converted into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is used to run the conveyers in spiral shapes so as to provide time to the baked biscuits to naturally cool down. The efficiency of the conveyor belts greatly depends on the type of motor which is used in that but it lies around 60% due to some losses in friction and slippage between belt and motor. The other type of cooling is through refrigeration and it is done using big size refrigerators. In refrigerators, electric energy is converted into thermal energy and its COP is calculated for its efficiency. The approximate COP of the refrigerator is around 0.85 to 0.90. Mixing is done by using mixtures which typically runs on electricity and there the electric energy gets converted into mechanical energy (El-Adly et al. 2015). In mixtures, a motor is embedded which has a set speed to rotate and when ingredients are poured into the bucket then it rotates. Again the efficiency of the mixer depends on the efficiency of the motor and it is around 60 to 70%. Shaping machine is mainly a hydraulic machine which punches the dough into desired shapes using a die. Its efficiency is around 70 to 80% and mainly depends on the pump and motor efficiency. Inbound transfer of good within the facility that is from raw material to transfer of dough, transfer of unbaked biscuits and transfer of packed biscuits come under the category of shortening storage. It also consumes a small amount of energy in form of fuel to run the vehicles that transfer the products during the baking process.

The main process of the baking biscuit is through radiation emitted by the hot surface of the oven but it is also the major factor due to which heat escapes the oven and there is a loss of energy in the system. Another loss in the system is due to the friction in the motors present in the mixer and conveyor system (Wang el at. 2019). In furnace compressed air is used to increase the efficiency and external compressors are used to compress the air. There is a possibility of leakage of compress air and it is a kind of loss. A leakage of around 1 mm in tubes leads to loss of around 3000 kWh of energy yearly.

Answer to Question: 2

The different renewable energies can be used in the biscuit production process are as follows,

Solar energy is the cleanest renewable energy available. Solar energy technologies use the sun’s energy which ultimately provides heat, light, hot water, electricity and cooling for the homes, industry, businesses etc. There are several types of technologies which have been developed so as to take advantage of solar energysuch as photovoltaic systems and solar thermal energy. The photovoltaic system is also called a solar cell system and it generates electricity directly from the sunlight. This energy is also used by many manufacturing industries in order to minimize their overall costs. Solar thermal energies are used in the form of the solar boiler and solar dryers in biscuit manufacturing (Sukhatme et al. 2017). Solar boilers are used to gear up the temperature up to 350` Celsius with the help of parabolic trough concentrated. The process of drying involves costly resourceslike diesel and electricity. The concentrating solar system technology may be used to reduce the cost of fuels in the manufacturing process.

The second renewable energy which can be used in the manufacturing process can be biomass energy which is used to generate electricity, transportation process and thermal energy. The production of energy is generated from all living things. This Includes the biomass energy is released to produce renewable heat or electricity. This is generated through gasification and combustion of dry biogas made out of controlled anaerobic consumption. Biomass energy consists of biofuels & biobased products as well as a biomass feedstock. The food industry of biscuit uses this type of energy, which alleviates petroleum products demand used for the transportation of raw material of finished goods. Ethanol is produced from sugarcane and corn and biodiesel produced with soy and rapeseeds. The production process also has involved second generation biofuels which are made of non-food feedstock like algae, wood chips, and municipal waste and perennial glasses.Biomass feedstock is produced through agricultural residues, energy crops, food waste etc. the feedstock is made in the form of electricity, heat and liquid flues, to save the electricity and manufacture the biscuit and continue with the process of production.

The third form of renewable energy is wind energy. It is the cleanest form of renewable energy. It produces electrify through wind by using kinetic energy. This energy reduces the emission of greenhouse effect gases and preserves the environment.

The following are the ways in which the cost of any organization can be reduced in terms of energy consumption can be stated as:

  • Implementing indirect changes: some of the manufacturers are focusing on incorporating sustainable elements in the operations of manufacturing. By increasing operational efficiency, the company will take less time in the manufacturing of biscuits which will result in the less consumption of energy.
  • Oven flexibility: while selecting an oven or upgrading an existing oven, the manufacturing firm should always consider the system which is flexible in what products it can produce (Twidell et al. 2015). The overall energy intensity of production of the biscuits can be increased if the amount of products is increased like diversifying the product lines. While manufacturing the biscuits such type of oven should be designed or install which can produce any foreseeable variations of those biscuits.
  • Reducing the production waste: some of the manufacturers’ implements some technical tools on the equipment which helps in correcting issues that arises during real time.
  • There are many principles which can be applied in the biscuit manufacturing industry in order to minimize the overall costs: compressed air management practices, monitoring the activities, shutting down procedures for the major plant like ovens, coolers etc. control of the lights in offices, meeting rooms, stores etc.


It can be concluded from the above management report that the biscuit industry is using exhaustible resources from many years. Nowadays many of the organizations have started using renewable energies like solar energy, biomass energy and wind energy. For the manufacturing process, these energies help the manufacturing unit to reduce their cost of production and it also has an advantageous impact on the environment by reducing the greenhouse effect (Apostol et al. 2015). The biscuit manufacturing industries use many processes like baking, cooling, mixing and shaping. These processes involve a high amount of energies in the form of electricity & fuels and to reduce the consumption of these energies the organization should adopt renewable energy technologies.


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