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Describe CoP Theory.
Social processes of CoP theory to the case study.
How the architects could build commitment and support for the EAI amongst their business and technology stakeholders?.
Boundary Spanning (BS) and Boundary Object (BO) Theories.
Critique of CoP and BSBO theories.
Implications of BSBO theories for CoP theory.
Implications of CoP and BSBO theories for BA practice.
CoP is the communities of Practice is a theory that helps in making the social interactions among stakeholders and the architects. It is important to know that the work architects form the boundaries that make it more difficult to get the effective communication among architects and stakeholders. Developing a volume of boundary spanning is necessary that helps in expanding the boundaries of the business with the help of BSBO theories. This study describes the theory of CoP and how to apply the CoP theory in the social process of CoP such as ME, RE, and JE. By using the social processes of CoP theory, this study describes how the architects could build commitment and support for the EAI amongst their business and technology stakeholders.
A community of practice is a collection of people who share a common concern or passion for doing something and learning about improving and how to perform better as these people are interacting regularly. It is important to know that how the employees can pawn their knowledge to the team or to the enterprise without doing any harm to themselves. This is the gap that needs to be fulfilled. There is so much difficulty that exists in among the knowledge of the individual person and company’s knowledge management, this is the same gap as there is a gap between politics and freedom. CoP is a strategy that is concerned to the knowledge-oriented cooperation, it can assist in bridging the gap because with the help of this bridge, the people of the organisation is the centre of knowledge management in the organisation (Dyer, 2017).
From the last 15 years, “knowledge environment” of almost all teams and all companies becoming more dynamic and the products and procedures also becoming more knowledge based. Each research is required communities of practice. It helps in making the social interactions among the stakeholders and the architects. With the help of CoP concepts, user can perform mutual engagement shared repertoire and joint enterprise. There are different strategies that help in building the effective connections and these connections help in filling the gaps and the boundaries among people who belongs to different communities.
CoPs are the group of people who come forward and share their knowledge in order to achieve a desired goal and objectives. Group individuals come share their experience, practice together and learn a lot of things and solve a lot of problems together to build management.
JE is Joint enterprise, ME is mutual engagement and SR is shared repertoire. JE includes, negotiated enterprise, interpretations, local responses, rhythms, mutual accountability. SR includes Stories, artifacts, actions, tools, styles, concepts, discourse and historical events. ME includes doing this together, community maintenance, social complexity, relationship, and engaged diversity. Joint enterprise, mutual engagement and shared repertoire intra CoP perspective (Crossan, 2015).
There are some dimensions of CoP like JE which is known as Joint enterprise, SR which is also known as Share Repertoire and ME is mutual Engagement.
In this case joint enterprise is all about that the architects did not consider the business and they all don’t want to make a shared knowledge and understandings. In this case the architects wanted to take the management control over the implementation plans. It is necessary to concentrate on the efforts internally within the boundaries of architecture team. Mutual engagement is all about working together and all shares the knowledge. In this case, the architecture works independently and they don’t depend on each other for any kind of purpose either it is the business or technology. The architects don’t appreciate the reality commercial reality. They don’t even communicate with each other and behaved as an elite. Communication plays an important role in all kinds of business. Communication is the soul and blood of the business. It is the duty of the architects to behave in a positive manner so that the relation between the technology stakeholders and business should be good. However, in this case, architecture practices did not lead to the good relations between the technology stakeholders and business. Shared repertoire is all about using one community so that they can share common perspective. However, this case is different and, in this case, people don’t have common tools. Architects don’t use the terms of business. It is the artefacts reflects the concerns of architecture and the architects don’t concern about the business and other technologies. It also promotes the knowledge and sharing among the architect team only and it does not promote the learning in intercommunity of business and stakeholders in technology (Dyer, 2017).
EA is the logic of business that helps in organising the business and system of IT logic. It is a conceptual model that helps in structuring the collection in different parts such as infrastructure, application, data, integrates, and storage and security. EA helps in converting these different parts into coherent organization wide that is a prototype of the required organisational technology portfolio. An EA can be classified into four parts such as Organisational strategy, development of EA, Implementation of EA, and programs or projects.
Organisational strategy involves a change in the direction of strategies of the firm that helps in getting the change that is transformational IT Change and also tells the requirement of new EA.
EA development involves different kinds of strategies in the organisation that is modelling activities, analysis, and planning, these all are associated with described the required system and platforms in order to offer the new strategies. The model of architects needs the platform and system capabilities containing procedures, networks, infrastructure, information, storage and data in a combined manner. EA implementation is all about architects that helps in identifying the particular system to offer new EA into function and to develop the implementation plans that help in scheduling and coordinating the offer of those system into function. Program is also known as project. it is the set of instructions and project is also known as set of programs. It involves the management of project and execution of the particular technology projects and programs (Crossan, 2015).
Boundary object theory helps in providing the interface among different world, it is defined in the actual paper written by Star and Griesemer (1989). It comprises variety of actors and each actor has distinct interest, different commitment and different perception towards the world. It also provided that different interpretations for every group of all actors. There is an idea behind each object that helps in connecting with these actors, likewise in a language does, it provides object that include components from every actor’s world. It does not mean that the understanding and knowledge is same but the interface is common among all and provide a medium of communication among all actors. In this case, these are different actors such as stakeholders, employees and architects. The main aim behind this boundary object is to provide an interface so that they can communicate among and can share the knowledge and information and learning. The main aim of the business stakeholders is to concentrate on strategic and functional planning and analysis. So Boundary object help in achieving all the desired target so that one can handle the business more appropriately (Carlile, 2017).
Boundary spanning is a term that defines the individuals with the help of an innovation system who have and can adopt and it also plays the role in connecting the internal network of the company by external resources of the data and information. This term was founded by Tushman, and the concept of boundary spanning developed by the social scientists in the late 1950s. The concept of boundary spanning character is very popular in the academic research field and it also help in getting the peer review done with the help of references. In simple words, the boundary spanning is now used widely to define the different kinds of situations where an individual crosses the limitations or boundaries of the social group. In this case, the architects and the stakeholders can cross the boundaries and can connect with each other and can help each other in sharing and learning the process. The group of architects has to come forward with the help of this technique can share the knowledge with the stakeholders and can fulfil the commitment towards them (Dyer, 2017).
The research of BSBO is developed into two forms, the first form is, with the help of BSBO logic and implementing this BSBO that helps in establishing the literature. The second form is developing the understanding of BSBO.
The first form of BSBO applies to the learning perspective and sharing knowledge that help in bridging the gap of different aspects, the first aspect is make a boundary in between the application area and knowledge domain, the second is the boundaries of organisation among the seekers of knowledge and the ones who provide the solutions of issues and challenges, the third boundary is among unknown and known solutions. The mechanism of BSBO helps in breakthrough innovation by filling the gap of great number of solutions and it also increase the chance of getting an acquirable solution. In this present market or growing market, the function of BSBO is very important to share the knowledge and to share the learning process. Cooperation is critical in all kinds of business for making collaborations with other organisations because the growing market are typically disntinguished by information channel which is less transparent, shortage in knowledge of business and restrictions (Bacharach, 2018).
CoP is always don’t have positive influence on the organisation and objectives of organisation. It also has some counterproductive effects in the achievement of the organisational objectives. The practices of CoP lead to the insularities and monopolies of knowledge. To overcome with these issues CoP, it is necessary to use BSPO theories. It is necessary to adapt these theories in the business as it helps in growing and developing the business.
There is various application of BSBO theories that help in overcoming the issues that cause because of the CoP theory. It is necessary to analysed the inter organisational connection at all the levels with an outline on the personal level. On this level, agents of BSBO are very important in preserving an obligational contractual connection and this connection should have mutual dependency, commitment for the long term, measures of all the performance and risk sharing. In this case, BSBO theory helps architects in fulfilling the commitment towards the stakeholders in the business. The other theory of BSBO is logic based that helped in the social psychology. This theory work in the identification of the organisation and in strengthening the self esteem in the context of business people. It also helps in increasing the work efforts and the tendencies to cooperate (Hogg, 2016).
There are some duties of BA that they have to focus on the strategies and functional analysis and planning. It is necessary to apply different implications of CoP and BSBO theories in the business so that it can grow very well. there are different perspectives of BSBO and CoP for BA practice. The theories of BSBO studies at level of team so that the team can manage the external environment of the organisation. Examining the roles of different actors at different hierarchal level is mandatory. This identification helps in achieving the negative and positive benefits to the team and also helps in decreasing the work pressure (Ancona, 2017).
This study examined the emergence of organisation with the help of different theories of BSBO and different practices of CoP. The study describes the theory of community of practice with a real-life example in terms of architects and the stakeholders and how this CoP is application IS. There are different social processes such as JE, ME and SR and the description of all three. All these social processes are applied to the CoP with an example of the given case study. BSBO theories play a critical role and help in making the connection among stakeholders and the architects.
Ancona, D. G., & Caldwell, D. F. (2017). Bridging the boundary: External activity and performance in organizational teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 634-665
Bacharach, S. B. (2018). Organizational theories: Some criteria for evaluation. Academy of Management Review, 14, 496-515.
Carlile, P. R. (2017). A pragmatic view of knowledge and boundaries: Boundary objects in new product development. Organization Science, 13, 442-455.
Crossan, M. M., & Apaydin, M. (2015). A multi-dimensional framework of organizational innovation: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Management Studies, 47, 1154-1191.
Dyer, J. H., & Chu, W. (2017). The determinants of trust in supplier-automaker relationships in the U.S., Japan and Korea. Journal of International Business Studies, 31, 259-285.
Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (2016). Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. Academy of Management Review, 25, 121-140.
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