1.1 What is fever? Explain how Peter’s fever developed.
Fever is a state where the body vitals rises above 100°F. A fever in the body signifies an infection. When an infection attacks the body, the immunity of the body starts working to eliminate the infection. Fever is the indication that the immune system is working on the invasive organism that entered the body. Peter had developed flu-like symptoms in the initial stage accompanied by runny nose and sneezing. He must have been affected by the virus through air droplets through sneezing or cough. The throat pain occurred due to swelling of tonsils and lymph nodes which increased his body temperature and he had high fever.
1.2 State, with explanation, two benefits of fever.
The 2 advantages of fever on our body are mentioned below: Fever is accompanied by a rise in body temperature which kills many microorganisms. It has a negative effect on the growth and replication of the microorganisms. The temperature lower than the normal human body temperature allows growth of the viruses and bacteria. Fever elevates the body temperatures thereby lowering the levels of iron, zinc and copper in the bloodstream which is required for replication of bacteria. Due to this decrease in the level of minerals in blood, the bacteria starves and ultimately die without replicating.
2.1 Given that influenza is caused by a virus, why was Peter prescribed an antibiotic?
It is known that a virus is responsible for causing influenza, Peter was given the doses of antibiotic because of the symptoms studied by the general physician. Peter had fever for the last 2 days and he had a sore throat, swollen lymph nodes and yellowish white patchy covering on the tonsils. Sometimes the bacteria infect the respiratory tract of the body causing symptoms like swollen nodes and throat infection. Keeping that in mind, an antibiotic was prescribed to Peter.
2.2 The doctor prescribed phenoxymethylpenicillin. Discuss the mode of action of phenoxymethylpenicillin.
Phenoxymethylpenicillin is a drug derived from penicillin. It works on the infection caused by the bacteria. It is an oral mode penicillin which targets the respiratory tract of the system. It generally treats moderate issues related to bacterial infection in respiratory tracts, skin and soft tissues. It stops the growth of the bacteria causing disease. Bacteria do have cell walls like plants. The action is targeted on the cell wall. The antibiotic has property that dissolves the walls disturbing the mechanism of bacteria multiplication inside the human body. The encroaching of walls leads to malfunctioning of the process of bacteria thereby reducing in number, followed by elimination of the microorganism from the body (Marieb & Hoehn, 2019).
2.3 Explain why antibiotics are not effective against viruses.
Antibiotics are medicines that work in fighting against bacteria. Therefore to understand the functioning of antibiotics, it is necessary to understand the structure of bacteria. The bacteria are surrounded by the protective walls. Antibodies break these walls, interfering their normal functioning of nutrition and growth. On other hand, viruses do not have such physiology. They do not multiply on their own. They do not have walled structures which can be penetrated and destroyed. Bacteria have a machinery which is hacked by antibodies. Viruses do not have such structure and hence antibodies cannot work in viral diseases (Frieri et al., 2017). For treatment of viruses, vaccines or antiviral drugs are prescribed by doctors. Vaccines are more effective in treating the viral disease because they form antibodies inside the human body which prevents the replication of the virus inside the cell.
3.1 Name and describe two (2) possible ways that Peter could have contracted the influenza virus (modes of transmission).
Influenza flu are generally of 3 types. Flu viruses are transmitted through droplets in the air by coughing and sneezing. It can also be contracted through touch and inhaling the droplets. The two possible ways that might have transmitted the disease to Peter could be inhaling the droplets transmission and through contact transmission i.e. touching the infected place or infected hand of the other person.
3.2 Identify and explain two (2) ways by which the modes of transmission could be broken.
The two ways by which disease can spread are contact transmission and droplet transmission. Contact transmission can be direct or indirect. Direct transmission is transfer of virus through touching of the body surface. The fingers are the most common and easy way to transmit the virus to the mouth, nose and eyes. The virus easily enters the body and continues to mutate (Grossman & Porth, 2014).Indirect transmission is contraction through objects which are touched by the person or came in contact with the infected hands or body such as telephones, bags, mobile phones etc. The modes described above can be mitigated by avoiding and taking preventive measures while touching inanimate objects. It is proposed to use gloves, wear eye protection gears along with washing and sanitizing hands(Lee & Bishop, 2016) Sometimes influenza virus can also be transmitted through birds like chicken and turkey. Consumption of the meat of these animals causes viruses to come into the human body. The way to prevent this is to cook the meat properly or to avoid them in order to protect ourselves. Direct transmission is through the droplets transmitted by the infected person to others in the form of coughing, sneezing, mouth or nasal mucus. It can also be transmitted through the conjunctiva droplets. It is taken to be the primary means of infection among the major population. The way by which the transmission can be controlled is taking precautionary measures while coughing and sneezing that can be done by wearing masks and by following hand hygiene (Bridges et al., 2003)
4.1 Describe the physiological basis of the first sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
According to the provided case, Peter had developed fever. It caused aching muscle and body pain. The condition worsened after the pain in the throat. The infected part is the upper respiratory tract of the patient. The first sign being the throat infection wherein it was observed that throat had redness. He experienced difficulty while coughing and congestion in his nose. There can be body aches and joint pain. According to the World Health Organization, these symptoms can go away easily in a person who possesses a good immune system and healthy body. But in some cases, it persists and tends to increase with passage of time (WHO, 2015)
4.2 Describe the physiological basis of the second sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
2nd physiological sign observed is swollen nodes near the neck. The swollen lymph nodes in influenza caused malaise. The sore throat leads to difficulty in swallowing food leading to loss of appetite followed by weakness in the body. The weakness and continuous cough also makes the patient experience fatigue and he may experience loss of energy and weakness.
4.3 Describe the physiological basis of the third sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
Lastly, 3rd physiological sign seen in the throat is yellowish itchy covering on the tonsils. The tonsils can cause pain in the throat. In some cases the swelling of tonsils causes chills and high fever. The swollen tonsils and lymph nodes can also cause headache along with feverish feeling.
5.1 Compare and contrast the processes by which viruses and bacteria replicate
Bacteria and viruses form an important part of our ecosystem. They are microscopic and thereby cannot be seen through naked eyes. They both are capable of causing diseases in the human. They might be microscopic but they do differ from each other. Bacteria are larger than viruses. Viruses are thousand times smaller than the bacteria. These microbes have different ways to replicate inside or outside the human body. Bacteria are generally single celled organisms with definite cell walls. They reproduce asexually and are independent in replicating. The process by which they replicate is called binary fission where the mother cell divides into 2 daughter cells. Bacteria need a proper temperature for their regular growth. They cannot withstand very high or very low temperatures. Viruses require a mode to replicate their cells in order to reproduce. They can only replicate if they have a host cell. The viruses do not have proper organ structure where they can absorb vital components and replicate. They need association with the host cells. In the process of replication, the virus releases its genetic material which can be a DNA or RNA. The vital factors of the genetic material replicate are associated with the building component. After the components are generated, the newly born virus matures. It breaks the cell of the host and starts replicating to the other cells nearby. This is the way by which viral infection spreads in a faster way. The drugs are generally used to treat the infection and not the virus itself (Bullock & Manias, 2017)
Bridges, C. B., Kuehnert, M. J., & Hall, C. B. (2003). Transmission of influenza: implications for control in health care settings. Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 37(8), 1094–1101.Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1086/378292
Bullock, S., & Manias, E. (2017). Fundamentals of pharmacology (8th ed.). Pearson Australia.
Frieri, M., Kumar, K., & Boutin, A. (2017). Antibiotic resistance. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 10(4), 369–378.Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2016.08.007.
Grossman, S., & Porth, C. (2014). Study guide for Porth’s pathophysiology, concepts of altered health states, ninth edition. Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Lee, G., & Bishop, P. (2016). Microbiology and infection control for health professionals. Pearson Australia.
Marieb, E. N., & Hoehn, K. N. (2019). Human anatomy and physiology. (includes CD-ROM Interactive Physiology 10- system suite). Pearson Education. World Health Organization. (2015). WHO Influenza, an Unpredictable Threat. Retrieved from:, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhhJfT86Bgg
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