Formal communication usually happens through formal channels of communication and the flow can be both horizontal and vertical. This kind of communication is controlled in some manner and needs deliberate efforts for proper flow. In organizations, employees are bound to adhere to the channels of communication along with following the hierarchy. On the other hand, informal communication does need instructions, command and direction. It is multi-dimensional and can move freely in any direction (Schaefer, 2018). It is generally quick and more natural and real as people talk to each other freely without any restrictions.
The conducts of the meeting incorporate timely start and closure of the meeting, sticking to the agenda, to be punctual, to state the meeting objective before the start, maintain decorum and let everyone speak. Further, a brief introduction of the members or participants should also be given in the starting. It should be ensured that participants do not distract from the meeting agenda and new ideas are invited from the members (Quintanilla & Wahl, 2018). All the participants should remain aware of the agenda before the meeting so that the efforts are moved in the right direction.
Presentation aids are also known as sensory aids that are used to support the speech or presentation of the speaker. These are beyond the actual speech or presentation of the speaker and can include pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, maps and images. Apart from the visual aids, there are also audio aids which encompass sound effects, musical excerpts and speech excerpts. The common purpose to use these aids is to make the presentation effective and help the speaker to put forward his words and thoughts more clearly and effectively (Quintanilla & Wahl, 2018). It should be noted that the use of presentation aids should be done at the right time, during the correct part of the speech and for the appropriate idea so that efficacy can be ensured.
Negotiation preparation is the step before the actual negotiation and it is significant so that the negotiation can be done in a predetermined manner without skipping important points. It can include the terms and conditions of the deal, alternative ways and value for all the parties. Thus, it is the process in which the concerned parties try to reach a solution which is of value for everyone and can also satisfy the needs and wants. Even small negotiations need creativity and preparation and thus, its importance cannot be overlooked.
Written communication involves sending the messages, orders or instructions in written form to the concerned party. It involves communication through letters, telegrams, memos, emails, bulletins, circulars and reports. This is generally a formal method of communication and less flexible. It should be clear, concise, accurate and avoid writing mistakes so that the message can be interpreted in the same way as was intended. It is useful when there is the need to maintain a record, keep a proof, keep as a legal document and ensure uniformity in procedures (Schaefer, 2018). The disadvantages include lack of flexibility, time-consuming, misinterpretation and no scope of immediate correction.
Verbal communication involves the use of words to share the message or information with others. Due to the involvement of words, it considers both written oral modes of communication. To be effective, it must be ensured that right words are chosen, they are used at the right time and right place, they are used effectively and should be properly reinforced with non-verbal communication. The types of verbal communication involve inter-personal, intra-personal, public and small group communication. Examples encapsulate writing letters, memos, giving oral presentation etc. The characteristics include sound, pitch, words and tone (Schaefer, 2018).
Compliance documents include all those records, observations, interviews, videos, pictures, blueprints and reports which show that the program or event adheres with the prescribed and pre-defined standards. The types of documents are reports, invoice, packing slip, spreadsheet, non-disclosure agreement, contract, journal, manuscript, user guide and many more. Any document can be a compliance document if it serves the purpose (Kanki, 2019). Successful compliance documents are accurate, specific, accessible, technology compatible, standardized and scalable, comprehensive, clear and agile, user-focused and adaptable (Hashmi & Governatori, 2018).
Effectively conveying information is not only a skill but also an art which can be obtained only after practice and experience. The characteristics imperative for effective communication is accurate and clear message, selection of the right communication channel, self-efficacy, self-confidence and respectfulness. Along with that, it is also necessary that it should have clarity and brevity, observance, arrangement for providing feedback, non-verbal cues and clear interpretation (Schaefer, 2018). Effective communication is crucial in all spheres of life; be it professional or personal areas.
The five different types of conflict management are as follows:
In this type of conflict management, others’ priorities are put on top and your concerns are considered after them. Therefore, it is the style in which you forsakes your needs and wants in exchange for those of others. It is simply the act of the giving or someone persuades to give in. It is useful in such a negotiation when you are less concerned about the issue and giving in would not result in a serious loss (Ayub, AlQurashi, Al-Yafi, & Jehn, 2017). It is also significant when maintaining peace is foremost important or when there is no choice but to agree with others.
In this style, the focus is to find a balanced solution such that all the parties can be at least partially pleased. Thus, in finding the middle group, the parties will be either satisfied or dissatisfied up to some extent. While using this kind of style, people skills are more important as compared to conflict management skills. This style is also referred to as 'lose-lose' method. This is utilized when it is of more importance to arriving at a solution and less important for the solution to be great (Qadir & Khan, 2016). Also, when the deadline is near and a temporary solution is the need of the hour.
Collaborating is also a called a win-win strategy where the aim is not to find a middle ground but to reach a solution that can satisfy all the parties. It is considered as an assertive and highly cooperative solution and useful when there is need of gaining commitment, improving relations, merging perspectives, learning and integrating solutions (Ayub, AlQurashi, Al-Yafi, & Jehn, 2017). It is used when it is imperative to represent the beliefs of all the parties, the final solution is of great importance for everyone and a crucial relationship exists among the parties.
By considering the competing style of conflict management, the firm’s stance is taking while refusing to see the point of view of the other parties. Other's ideas are rejected continuously or your point of view is pushed until the desired outcome is observed. It is appropriate to use when there is the need to stand for morals or rights and it is necessary to make a decision immediately (Qadir & Khan, 2016). Further, it is needed to end a long term conflict and to prevent a terrible decision from being made.
It is also known to avoid or deny any decision being made. It is used when the party tries to ignore the conflict as much as possible and refuses to deal with the same. This style is significant when a “cooling off” period is required to understand the situation appropriately before making any decision. Moreover, when the involves parties are not cooperative and assertive, this style can help (Ayub, AlQurashi, Al-Yafi, & Jehn, 2017). It should not be used for the conflict cases where an immediate solution is required and it is important to end the conflict in any way.
Ayub, N., AlQurashi, S. M., Al-Yafi, W. A., & Jehn, K. (2017). Personality traits and conflict management styles in predicting job performance and conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management.
Hashmi, M., & Governatori, G. (2018). Norms modeling constructs of business process compliance management frameworks: a conceptual evaluation. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 26(3), 251-305.
Kanki, B. G. (2019). Communication and crew resource management. In Crew resource management (pp. 103-137). Academic Press.
Qadir, A., & Khan, M. M. (2016). Linking personality and emotional labor: The mediating role of relationship conflict and conflict management styles. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 10(2), 212-238.
Quintanilla, K. M., & Wahl, S. T. (2018). Business and professional communication: keys for workplace excellence. Sage Publications.
Schaefer, M. Y. (2018). Communication skills for strategic competence.
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