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1. Integrated disease management (IDM) is the process to inhibit and manage the plants/ crops' disease to maintain productivity. The process involves prohibiting, suppression, protection, resistance, avoidance and therapy of weed hosts and vectors that are responsible for causing diseasing. It is vital to follow the IDM process to get a healthy crop to enhance productivity. Although, it is essential to identify the pests, host and useful organism before taking any action. The beneficial organism should not be harm as they help in the good yielding by various ways like fixing the nutrients and make the soil fertile.
2. Peat control is the management or regulation of the unwanted species called as pests. In the present case, soil born pests are harming the potato crop. Soil-borne disease is the chief limitation of production. For managing the soil-borne pathogen, the farmer must select the pathogen-free seeds and store it properly as this step can aid in decreasing risk of developing the disease. Moreover, the seed should be washed with chemical fungicides to decrease seedling and seed losses. Soil solarisation is another method that can be deployed by Ms Mc Gregor to prevent potato crop from the soil-born pathogen. In this process, a transparent film is placed so that it can capture the sun's radiation inside the soil therefore the upper soil layer get heated. Solarisation is an effective technique in hot summer to kill various soil born pathogens. The above stated two methods are the cultural process to prevent the plant from soil-borne pests; if these methods are not sufficient to control disease then chemical treatment can be done. The copper application can be an effective method to stop the pest growth at the foliar phase only.
A) Nitrogen exists in the soil in three forms include nitrate ions, ammonium ions, and organic nitrogen compounds. Most of the nitrogen is soil is originated in the gaseous form, Moreover, the plant can only utilise nitrate(NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+) forms of nitrogen.
Nitrogen mineralisation includes ammonification process (that is the transformation of organic nitrogen to ammonia) and hydrolysis (the conversation of ammonia to ammonium)
R − NH2 +H2O→NH3 +R −OH + energy
2) Ammonia hydrolysis
NH3 +H2O→NH4 + +OH−
2NH4 + +3O2 →2NO2 − +2H2O+4H+
2NO2 − +O2 →2NO3
B) Nitrate is the primary form of nitrate that can leach out easily. This form of nitrogen is very mobile and can be carried away by water. Ammonium is the nitrogen form that generally not leaches out easily. Nitrogen (nitrate) will leach when more water is present in the soil more than the water holding capacity of the soil, then the excess water can drain underneath the root area and carrying within it nitrate form of ammonia. Therefore heavy rain and low water holding capacity of the soil can aid in nitrogen leaching. Leaching can be prevented by maintaining the soil pH in a range 6.5 to 7.0 moreover; urease inhibitor can be applied when soil is cool and moist.
A. “We must produce more with less" .means that the farmer needs to increase the productivity by utilising or harvesting the same land with minimal water utilization. Further, produce more food/nutrients/calories per acre by using less amount of water.
B. By various literature, the world is harvesting enough amount of food to feed the people. But, as per the data in the next 50 years, there is a requirement to increase the food harvesting by 170 per cent for the same there is need to apply the principle of produce more with less. It is essential to harvest more with same land and minimal use of water. Further, the nutrient value must be more as compare to earlier food to render quality food to the people.
A) One of the chief issues that farmers are going through is climate change and the adverse effect of the same on productivity. The adaption measures are as follow:
1) Use scarce resources of water more effectively
2) Familiarizing building codes as per the future extreme and bad weather conditions.
3) Constructing flood defences along with increasing dykes levels.
B) Mitigation choices in agriculture are related to living stock management, organic soil management, change in the land use, and cropland management. In the present case, the farmer can deploy the mitigation strategies to increase the yields and reduce the crop destruction due to adverse weather condition. The strategies are as follow:
1) By diversifying the crop rotation process as it will help to maintain the fertility of the soil and help in the productivity of diverse food items.
2) Along with the crop production, the farmer can start livestock farming too. I
1) Salmonellosis (Caused by Salmonella)
Way of spreading: Usually lives in the human and animal intestine and spread through the faecal matter.
Food chain spread: Human get an infection due to contaminated food or water. Food can get contaminated at slaughter, farm during preparation.
The framer can take measures: Improve farm personal hygiene by regular hand washing.
2) Trichinosis (caused by Trichinellosis) parasitic disease
Way of spreading: eating undercooked or raw pork (infected by species larvae)
Food chain spread: Consuming infected pork.
The framer can take measures: Less role of farmers in this disease spread, although farmer can practise hygiene procedure while slaughtering the pig.
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