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Introduction to Integrated Literacy Program

Misbehavior of students is the main concern of the educators throughout the globe. Disruptive behavior in classrooms leads to less learning of students. The aim of this paper is to compare integrated literacy program and standalone literacy program (Lee, & Song, 2016). The integrated and reading literacy strategies program provide integrated instruction in vocabulary development, word reading and comprehension two different students in self contained and regular education classes. Development of integrated literacy program began when the researchers of a university came in contact with Special Education administrators from different district school seeking help for their reading programs. In the present problem it is observed that good readers developing successful in their school according to their reading ability at the same time struggling readers was left behind.

On the other hand, stand-alone literacy program focus towards the need and difficulty of the children in the aspect of learning. It is considered as family approach as compared to single approach. Standalone literacy programs are not helpful for the students weak in learning. Reading programs focus effectively towards five components that are essential for teaching includes phonics, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension and phonemic awareness and this program is Incorporated creates an effective teaching quality according to the promise.

Discussion on Integrated Literacy Program

Integrated literacy program and standalone literacy program are both considered as the content descriptors that help students to develop their literacy and language as supported by the Australian curriculum. Standalone literacy program concentrates towards supporting and developing the language of student’s literacy as an isolated approach from different learning areas within the curriculum (Kumar, & Ochoa, 2012). This literacy and language program is found to be meeting in the first year of Australian curriculum content descriptor. It represents that students will be engaged in discussion and conversation utilizing active listening behavior contribution of ideas and representation of interest. It also describes predictable text utilizing developed phrase, contextual, fluency, and grammatical, semantic and phonic knowledge along with emerging process of text strategies.

When the integrated literacy program is found to be combining with more than two areas of the curriculum and when the learning occurs across the areas of learning and utilization of topics, themes and student question along with the issues of real life for creating a better learning experience that helps to develop the learning goal of a particular group of student (Cervetti, et al 2012). Apart from Australian curriculum the literacy program concentrates towards level 1b, level 1a and level 1c that comprises composition of text through writing, speaking and creating along with comprehending of text through reading, listening and weaving that are included in the above stated levels.

The main difference between the two programs represents the approach according to the literacy development and difference teaching and learning strategies and technique that is adopted. Both integrated literacy program and standalone literacy program meets the criteria of Australian Curriculum content descriptor that includes development of knowledge skills and understanding in reading, listening, speaking, viewing creating and writing. Both the literacy programs shows same outcome in order to support and develop the literacy skill of a student. Implementation of integrated literacy program or standalone literacy program is essential for focusing towards the learning process and the type of program that suits the need of the child. A child suitable for a standalone program and getting benefited in different learning areas will not be suited according to the integrated program. Moreover, in this aspect of choosing one of the literacy program educators have an essential role to support the students by continuously accessing the learning ability of a child and to monitor the progress along with development utilizing the teaching practice and teaching methods related to writing and reading strategies.

It is argued by different authors that reading instructions in integrated literacy program should comprises of three goals of automatic and accurate text comprehension ward reading and appreciation for reading (Maranda, Harding, & Kinderman, 2016). According to this concept balance should be achieved not for a lesson add a specific day but it should over time as the students develop their skills that leads to change according to the need of the instruction. According to integrated literacy program it is described as an offer of balance focusing towards the philosophy underlying the desire for balanced curriculum. On the other hand it is argued by an author that balance should be understood as it is a set of belief and not a set of particular practice. The set of beliefs should acquire conventional skill of literacy that should be acquired by the children which can be equally important and varied in the aspect of knowledge.

According to the authors teaching process is one of the research topic in the field of education articulated by United States national reading panel and it is supported by Australian Rowe and United States national reading panel that include the component of effective teaching and reading.

  • Phonemic awareness is described as the capacity of breaking words into different sound units that includes H/A/T and SH/I/P. It is observed that few children learn before they arrives at school from different book reading and discussion with parents and also from playing the games related to rhyming. There are few category of children those who do not learn regarding phonemic awareness nose the need of practicing to segment words in two different sounds and to identify the pattern of rhymes in words.
  • Phonics is described as knowledge about matching sounds gets converted into letters represent appropriate phonemes (Bickham, & Slaby, 2012). This process allows the readers for decoding new words that are written by sounding loudly the phonemes in spite of memorizing words
  • Fluency explains the capacity of reading the text quickly automatically and accurately that are not familiar. This is guided by oral reading repeating aloud with guidance and feedback from parent’s teachers and peers.
  • Comprehension explains the goal of teaching and reading. It engage to make meaning through connection regarding the knowledge of the reader and what is read, utilising strategies that includes generating questions and answering questions along with summarising.
  • Vocabulary development is important in skilled reading. It can be directly taught by defining and introducing new words and indirectly by teaching strategies of word learning that includes utilisation of dictionary, word roots and context clues.(Louden, 2014)

The evaluation and review of writing and reading process according to the relationship to policy and curriculum says that when a child receives the instruction of writing their fluency of comprehension and reading improves. Australian research provides different resources emphasizing the writing and reading connection (Davis, 2014). It is briefed according to the Australian policy that instruction based on discipline in writing and reading enhances the achievement of a student in different subject. Without the material of reading course strategy and writing opportunity it is difficult for the students to master the concept. This practice of literacy is linked family with both learning and reading. It is argued by few authors that the teacher should develop their experience of writing that will reflect with time into deeper exploration regarding the subject matter. It is also argued that teachers should develop the assignments that will help the students to express and create innovative ideas and this will lead to a good writer.

Stand alone literacy program is found to be broken into small components and it is required to master the simple skills before proceeding towards the difficult skills. Education researcher like John Hattie represents a comprehensive analysis regarding the form date of Curriculum says that standalone literacy program is one of the effective teaching strategy that help a student to develop their reading and writing skills according to the content (Hudson et al 2015). On the other hand integrated literacy program illustrates to promote the vocabulary growth along with building fluency and text comprehension. Allocating time for reading instruction provides effective result in the schools providing education to students from disadvantage families and also in low achieving schools.

Further, it is observed that behavior management is also an essential aspect that it directly depends on the arrangement of the classroom. It involves classroom organization utilizing the teaching effective proteins and expectations and to manage the transitions. When the teachers teach and utilize effective expectation the problem behavior probability is found to be decreased (Luke, Dooley, & Woods, 2011). Students should be provided with sufficient knowledge regarding expectations and they should provide input on different expectations. The expectations should comprise according to the student friendly language and there should be positivity in the expectations. All the Expectations should be tracked and reviewed with time. Effective Expectations in classroom is found to be the critical aspect that prevents the problem in the aspect of behavior management.

According to integrated literacy program different goals are initiated that includes alphabetic principle ward reading and phonemic analysis. In order to read words the children should break they into orthographic code and they should be aware regarding the sound structure of different words corresponding the phonemic sounds and visual letters. Additionally, phonemic knowledge and words increases children their capacity of learning strategy for decoding words and sounding out. In this type of program the reading strand is found to be taught by direct instruction on phonemic analysis and alphabetical principle along with word reading. Similarly alphabetical principle represents the understanding different letters corresponding to the sounds in words which is an essential skill according to which building of phonemic analysis depends (Perin, 2013). Children’s from kindergarten starts with understanding the principle of alphabets failing to read due to deficiency of fundamental knowledge and instruction for building the essential area of skill. They begin with lessons that help to build the knowledge along with visual symbol that are frequently taught for recognizing a letter. The initial chapters concentrated towards the high frequency letters that can be applied during the activities of reading and phonemic analysis.

Writing skill is accused often due to punctuation, spelling and grammar but these are all endless rules regarding effective communication to express accurately clearly and precisely. It is universal truth that language is often considered as dynamic so different conventional rules about punctuation and grammar change at different aspect (Baro, & Keboh, 2012). It cannot be denied that experts disagree about punctuation and correction of spelling. The main factors that different convention regarding writing skill help to build a proper reading structure. It is essential that children should use relevant conventions including grammar punctuation spelling and syntax in the writing skills that will eliminate the critics and prevents them to lose marks as these cannot be neglected. Effective writing required proper formation of sentences which is considered as the basic unit (Martella, & Marchand-Martella, 2015). Syntax is described as the technical term to order a specific word and it cannot be used as a second language because huge number of speakers learns their basic syntax while growing up surrounded by language. The syntax rule not found to be notoriously complex but while writing a student should be careful regarding sentences that make a particular sense in the aspect of meaning.

According to research, it can be said that clauses phrases and modifiers at information regarding the predicate and subject that makes writing more clear and interesting. A particular word acting as an adverb or adjective is considered as a modifier but more than two words without a predicate and a subject acting as an adverb or adjective can be considered as a phrase (Riehle, & Weiner, 2013). Similarly more than two words acting as an adverb or adjective and having a predicate and the subject can be considered as a clause full stop or student should be careful regarding their writing skills whether it becomes a phrase single word or clause should appear close to the words they want to explain.

Conclusion on Integrated Literacy Program

From the above statement it can be concluded that all the students throughout the world should be empowered to achieve and learn with high quality practice of teaching and it should be equipped with proper knowledge this position and skills for lifelong learning in order to shape the education system (Prado, & Marzal, 2013). There is different substantial body regarding knowledge and instructional practice that helps to improve the students learning outcome in a school. These principles of practice are considered as signature pedagogies that make the actual difference linked for improving the student’s motivation and achievement in order to read and write.

Reference for Integrated Literacy Program

Baro, E. E., & Keboh, T. (2012). Teaching and fostering information literacy programmes: a survey of five university libraries in Africa. The Journal of Academic Librarianship38(5), 311-315.

Bickham, D. S., & Slaby, R. G. (2012). Effects of a media literacy program in the US on children's critical evaluation of unhealthy media messages about violence, smoking, and food. Journal of Children and Media6(2), 255-271.

Cervetti, G. N., Barber, J., Dorph, R., Pearson, P. D., & Goldschmidt, P. G. (2012). The impact of an integrated approach to science and literacy in elementary school classrooms. Journal of research in science teaching49(5), 631-658.

Davis, P. J. (2014). Best practice principles in leadership development interventions: An Australian perspective. Journal of Management Policy & Practice15(5).

Hudson, P., Hudson, S., Gray, B., & Bloxham, R. (2013). Learning about being effective mentors: Professional learning communities and mentoring. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences93, 1291-1300.

Kumar, S., & Ochoa, M. (2012). Program-integrated information literacy instruction for online graduate students. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning6(2), 67-78.

Lee, K. H., & Song, G. H. (2016). A Study on Development of Libraries' Information Literacy Program based on Integrated Tasks to Support the Free Semester System. Journal of the Korean BIBLIA Society for library and Information Science27(4), 85-104.

Louden, B. (2014). Direct Instruction and the teaching of reading. The Conversation18.

Luke, A., Dooley, K., & Woods, A. (2011). Comprehension and content: Planning literacy in low socioeconomic and culturally diverse schools. The Australian Educational Researcher38(2), 149-166.

Maranda, S., Harding, B., & Kinderman, L. (2016). Evaluation of the long-term impact of a curriculum-integrated medical information literacy program. Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association/Journal de l'Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada37(3).

Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., Modderman, S. L., Petersen, H. M., & Pan, S. (2013). Key areas of effective adolescent literacy programs. Education and Treatment of Children36(1), 161-184.

Martella, R. C., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (2015). Improving classroom behavior through effective instruction: An illustrative program example using SRA FLEX literacy. Education and Treatment of Children38(2), 241-271.

McWilliams, R., & Allan, Q. (2014). Embedding academic literacy skills: Towards a best practice model. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice11(3), 8.

Perin, D. (2013). Literacy skills among academically underprepared students. Community College Review41(2), 118-136.

Prado, J. C., & Marzal, M. Á. (2013). Incorporating data literacy into information literacy programs: Core competencies and contents. Libri63(2), 123-134.

Riehle, C. F., & Weiner, S. A. (2013). High-impact educational practices: An exploration of the role of information literacy. College & Undergraduate Libraries20(2), 127-143.

Stevens, R. J., Van Meter, P. N., Garner, J., Warcholak, N., Bochna, C., & Hall, T. (2008). Reading and integrated literacy strategies (RAILS): An integrated approach to early reading. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk13(4), 357-380.

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