Chinese Foreign and Security Policy

Introduction to International Relations

The birth of cyber-enabled mechanism has influenced interactions of various actors in profound international system. Networked computers have been used for global transactions and pushed them to be efficient in global commerce, society, and civil government’s services. However, this profound action can create unique challenges, which affects the national security features of a state. Based on the case of China, it can be identified that dilemma to identify exact way to gain cyber-space advantages affect the factor more. However, the country can be considered as the fastest growing global economy in recent year. Hence, it can be sensed that the government of China want to gain the control over all international cyber domains; it also can be supported by the accusations of global entities to the Chinese government to be a part of malicious activities in cyberspace (Jinghua, 2019). The factors are proved to be effective for China, as they believe that informationization is the most potential aspect in war fighting. By gathering information from the global military formation, the Chinese military can manage the military struggle in recent years (carnegieendowment.org, 2020). To achieve the stability in cyberspace, it can be found that the China government is confronted with grave threats security to the nation’s cyber infrastructure. After analysing the military policy changes of China can depict that the nation is successful in achieving cyberspace management. Thus, it is found that the essay depict that China’s security and foreign policy in their internet domains and the concerned government selects control over their influence, as they want to dominate over international cyber domains. However, in a argumentative manner, the action of China in international cyberspace can be considered as the result of the tension between China and US government cyber espionage. The argumentative point can be established by collecting information about hot wars between the aforementioned nations regarding the cyber tolls’ roles in military operations.

Chinese Foreign Policy in The Internet Area

After analysing the former section, it can be understood that the argument is about China’s cyber security features and their intentions to control the global internet domains for better designing the military structure to control local wars. The controlling intention of the country has predominantly depicts the international tensions between China and the US. Based on the information, it can be identified that the academic discussion of China cyber warfare has started in 1990, which is called ‘information warfare’ and being impressed by the US military’s beneficiary for high technologies after Gulf War. The process has been done by the China, as they realised that the information is the best factor and plays critical roles in recent success. Based on the available information about the argumentative topic, it can be found that the government of China has focused on PMS (Preparations for Military Struggle) by analysing the data sets from the internet domain. Supports this, it can be recorded that in 1993, the PMS of the China military was ‘winning local wars in conditions of modern technology, particularly high technology’. This has been changed in 2004, after Iraq war to ‘winning local war under conditions of informationization’ (thediplomat.com, 2020). Thus, through these, the Chinese government has proved that they are focusing on cyberspace controlling to make their military force more powerful than the other nations.

In an argumentative manner, it can be identified that China has targets to make their military strong for managing the war fighting with other giant nations of the world, like the US. Information can be found regarding the political and international tensions between the two mentioned nations. Additionally, the available sources of information also indicate that the nations have been contracted for limiting the cyberspionage regarding intellectual property in order to gain commercially (thediplomat.com, 2020). The debate can be continued in this matter, as the government of the US had called routinely high-profiled contract breaches in the America’s digital networks. The nation has encountered with unauthorised hack in the personal management office along with espionage, which were sanctioned by state. The mentioned factor is feeding the belief for both the nations’ officials that ‘cyber warfare doctrine’ by China, is the balancing way regarding America’s premium conventional capabilities. The authors like Tai Ming Cheung, Jon R Lindsay, and Derek S Reveron collectively have argued about the US’s claims on the cyberspace matter of China. Thus, it can be found that the inclusion of the Chinese writer in the documentaries is necessary, as the American writer are predominantly emphasised that their nation has been victimised by the Chinese government and their activities in cyber securities.

However, Professor Fred Cate have declared that the US government has done cyber operation to the other international territories to understand their military formation and gain knowledge regarding that to make required improvement in their nation’s military. Additionally, the author also recorded that the Chinese government has done hacking and other cyber crimes to the other countries to steal information about their business, trade secrets, and commercial aspects to dominate that country. This fuels the argument that the Chinese government predominantly prefers to control the international market rather influencing the market (thediplomat.com, 2020). This action by the Chinese government is proved to be wrong, as the writer believed that trade secrets of a country is more valuable than their military information and the unauthorised access by the Chinese government is breaching the international rules of cyber securities (Delerue, 2019).

However, in the contrary of these claims, the Chinese government defend them by establishing that their cyber capabilities were not made in the vacuum, rather they had developed that for responding changing approaches of cyber warfare and practiced to the countries like Russia, US. Moreover, the country still backs up their point regarding strengthening their military force by analysing international military intelligence to be prepared for cyber warfare. Thus, in a collective note, the China government has the core concept of strengthening their military force for managing the international wars by using the cyber warfare in the internet around the globe. Additionally, they have proved that the actions are related to their domestic securities and environment.

Critical Review of International Relations

Thus, after all the analysis in the former section, it can be understood that it is true that the Chinese government has implement their cyberspace policy to control over the international affairs rather influence the external countries. This is considered as truth, based on the available sources of both China and the US resources. In a critical note, it can be identified that the countries like US has pushed the country’s information sets by great firewall, yet China found to block those websites and hindrance their operations. Hence, it can be proved that the government of China is looking forward to gain control over the international documents and the countries’ document management to dominate in cyberspace (thediplomat.com, 2020). 

To support the previous declaration, it can be attached that France’s watchdog regarding data-privacy has informed various international organisations and Google that to execute the Europe’s ‘right to be forgotten’, the management needs to offend links scrub from all the official websites, rather from European versions solely (Domingo, 2016). Moreover, in a detailed note, it is considered that the China’s cyberspace exploitation has been performed by the concerned government for achieving political control. However, in-depth analysis of factors can help to identify that the China has termed Apple, Google, Cisco, IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Qualcomm, and Oracle as ‘eight King Kongs’ for their backup to in China’ cyber actions. Information has highlighted more that too much dependencies on these organisations’ products or services enhance necessity to think about the domestic technology development along with its capabilities. This is required to make the Chinese internal structure of internet more secure. Hence, the country’s primary mission regarding cyberspace is for ensuring security for critical national areas, which is inherently non-destructive and defensive (Healey, 2019).

However, after all the aforementioned point, it is cannot be denied that the intention of the Chinese government in cyberspace is not legal with respect to the international cyber security norms. This can be well backed up by attaching in this discussion about the US government’s accusation against Chinese military and government about their cyber attacks, by which intellectual property has been stolen for the betterment of Chinese government. Besides this, the aforementioned country has found to be accused Chinese government for destroying not only the military intelligence, but also the country breaches economic interests as well. Hence, all the available information sources collectively indicate that the Chinese government has proffered control over influence in cyberspace management in international level.

All though the China government access the international information more often and try to establish or retain their standards and cultural aspects intact. Many authors have highlighted the control of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) found to be a controller over the cyber content of the country before their international outbreaks. This proves that the governing bodies of the country are very much conventional and protective in their information sharing process. This action not only protects the domestic security of the country but also offer the country an opportunity to restrict their national information sets to be accessed by the external countries in cyberspace (Shaw & Zhang, 2018). Thus, the country is not looking forward to influence the international territories, rather wants to dominate over them by controlling and stealing their confidential information about the military, national affairs, and military structure. In this regard, it can be considered that the mentioned action and mindset of China has begun a competitive environment amongst the international territories regarding their cyberspace activities. This actions are resulted a ‘cyber warfare’ within the countries. In this context, both Beijing and Washington needs to answer in this regard and both the leading countries have found to be promised about not targeting ‘critical infrastructure ‘while country’s peace time along with a promise to cybercrime pursuing in more vigilantly in their respective territories further (carnegieendowment.org, 2020). Collectively, it can be identified that the cyberspace is both complicated and new even many instance lacking while analysing the issues. However, in a critical note, it can be considered that the government of China predominantly wants to control the international territories and their confidential information rather than influencing the territories by the Chinese operations and management.

Conclusion on International Relations

After all the information evaluation, it can be concluded that the current essay has included the foreign and internet policy of China in a detailed manner. Analysing the factors, it can be identified that the mentioned government has run their policies illegally with respect to the international cyber policy. The mentioned factors have collectively indicated that the China government has been using their internet sources to control over the international territories. Based on the information, it can be identified that in the world, there are over billion of individuals, who are daily users in internet. Hence, it is proved that Chinese government can control the information of the users with more ease.

The above analysis have also identified that the government of China has used their internet policies not only for their army formation, but also for stealing the information from the international countries regarding their business policies and other confidential information for dominating over the territories. The information have also highlighted that the cyberspace actions is wrong by the Chinese government. However, in a critical note, it can be found that the Chinese authors have claimed that the country has developed their policies regarding internet for making their country safe from the attacks of the developed countries like US. The internet usage rate has designed for strengthening the country’s (Chinese) army formation strategies. Thu, it can be considered that the essay is representing the internet policies of China in a critical point and in a debatable note. Through this, the information regarding the subject can be evaluated more specifically, which helps the assessors to understand the policies and aspects of the China’s internet policies and the tension between two countries like the US and China regarding their cyberspace activities.

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