This document discusses the ethics and the ethical decisions that need to be incorporated in Software Development from time to time based on the requirements. The software developer being serving the society at large and following the ethics of programming the software thereby, developing a robust and an efficient program.
As an instance, suppose a software solution has been developed to serve the Human Resource Management system for any organization. This solution can be used by different organizations by just putting in the business rules in the customized settings section of the software. The module will help manage the Human Resources related functions within the same environment.
The program is thus beneficial to serve the society (the business purposes) and the programmer or the software developer is a contributor to the society.
Table of Contents
Code of Ethics and the reason for such incorporation.
Principles for software engineering code of ethics.
Considering the scenario for Self Driving Cars.
The Future of self driving cars.
References (Harvard Referencing)
Ethics is a general term that signifies a set of common rules or regulations that are defined to be followed for serving a particular purpose with fulfillment and desire. Similarly in software technology, ethics is a set of principles followed to overcome a problem using a software based solution working in a team (De Los Reyes Jr et al. 2017). No matter what the problem is the solution is always developed based on a common set of ethics. By professional ethics we understand adjusting or working in a managed solution.
Associated with ethics is another important term called Ethical. The word Ethical is termed to define the good or bad intention of the software developer or any external technologist to intentionally scratch, corrupt or steal information from any system or solution (Halinen&Jokela 2016). This term is very much associated with computers, networks, modern standard, mini or micro gadgets and its security.
The code of ethics is to define an ethical foundation where each of the members responsible in the team can appeal to serve a particular decision for developing a solid software solution (Boddington 2017). This helps define and identify a particular solution that stands ethical or unethical and can proceed to development of a robust solution by eliminating the unethical approaches in the team. The main purpose is to achieve a rock solid solution by serving the commitments to health, safety &welfare of the public or businesses.
The principles for software engineering are defined based on standard application of fair policy by the software engineer while working in a team to achieve a good solution (Jia& Xin 2018). The principles for software engineering are a mentioned below:
Though there aremany other codes of ethics that are evident in various sources as released from time to time, however, all serves the purposes for meeting the standards and contribute to the society at large.
What is the Self Driving all about?
Self driving is a feature developed using software technologies to partially automate the car driving process (Bojarski et al. 2016). Though the objective is to offer features to aid in the car driving process, however, the implementations has faced some serious challenges and thus re-thinking the implementations considering safety and security of the travelers as well as the public on the road is in real demand. The positive aspect is that several well renowned companies have come forward to research, develop and implement a system to completely automate the self-driving process (Diels&Bos 2016). But the challenge is the final decider to ensure a logical flow of operations. This is better explained in the case study scenarios which are discussed below.
Some of the case studies to quote
A project initiated under the brand name of Google with the objective to develop a solution that would serve the purpose for automated driving system for cars. The solution aims to implement a solution where the car will automatically drive to take the passengers to their destination, where they wish to go. While implementing the logic, the software team had to take the safety and security as a major consideration. Thus the speed of the cars needed to be considered keeping in mind the security of the passengers and obeying to the traffic rules. But while considering the situation as a case example, they came up with a set of ethical questions that bars continuing with further development and to come up with a solution will require a strong decider. The deciding factor is what will happen if a passenger in the car falls ill and require immediate medical attention.If we consider the first instance of controlling the speed of the car during auto driving mode, then, the security of the passenger will be at a stake because the passenger would require an immediate medical attention. This scenario is similar to what is called as decision interruption in software technology. (Speier 2003)
There are other similar case instances where the decision tree for planning the implementations cannot be completed. In order to come up with a logic a proper flow for the process needs to be planned using the decision tree and to do this, strict decisions needs to be adopted compromising few scenarios to complete the flow for the logic.
The car was launched with a marketing punch line as an Autopilot car. It came with major features like traffic avoiding cruise control, steering assist, auto control of door locks keeping the security concerns, and many other features. But the problem was in the marketing aspect where it was claimed as an Autopilot car with people presuming it to be a complete auto drive control. The accident that occurred with this car killed the driver. Though the real reasons cannot be interpreted but probably, the driver presumed that the car will drive by itautomatically and is a complete auto driver.
Though there had been other test runs performed by Volvo cars, and other such renowned car manufacturers who implemented the automated software’s of their own, however, none resulted in a complete success as there were cases of accidents reported (Pavlo et al. 2017). But above all, filling in the gaps to prepare a solid decision tree will help reinstate a complete safe automatic self driving capability for the cars.
Above all, the future of self driving cars is a real challenge and would require more use of technology (Banerjee et al. 2017). Following are the technologies that can work wonders in devising a complete self driving system solution:
Apart from the above, there may be many other technologies that may evolve in due course or utilizing any other existing technologies that can be used in automation of the process (Nielsen&Haustein 2018). Though there are logical hindrances, but with usage of the technological equipments and utilizing its usability features those can be removed. This will definitely help frame a solid automated auto driver solution for cars.
The benefits for implementing auto drive facility
Technology is definitely a blessing if it is properly applied else, it may lead to a complete distraction. Application of technologies to cars for implementing self driven features demands appropriate development and implementation. Security has always been a real challenge to the advancement of technology. As the world progresses with technology and many of the modern machineries are mostly automatic, thinking of those systems a few years back was a dream to us, however, with the advancement of technology, it became possible.
Taking this aspect in consideration, trust on the technology will never fade for us. We know that we will continuously evolve new technologies and will definitely win the race. So, hoping that some day or the other, affordable self driven cars would surely be in place and will be an efficient replacement to manual driving methods.
Banerjee, T., Bose, S., Chakraborty, A., Samadder, T., Kumar, B. and Rana, T.K., 2017, August. Self driving cars: A peep into the future. In 2017 8th Annual Industrial Automation and Electromechanical Engineering Conference (IEMECON) (pp. 33-38).
Boddington, P., 2017. Towards a code of ethics for artificial intelligence. Springer International Publishing.
Bojarski, M., Del Testa, D., Dworakowski, D., Firner, B., Flepp, B., Goyal, P., Jackel, L.D., Monfort, M., Muller, U., Zhang, J. and Zhang, X., 2016. End to end learning for self-driving cars. arXiv preprint arXiv:1604.07316.
Darcy, S. and Burke, P.F., 2018. On the road again: The barriers and benefits of automobility for people with disability. Transportation research part A: policy and practice, 107, pp.229-245.
Davis, M., 2017. Engineering ethics. Routledge.
De Los Reyes Jr, G., Kim, T.W. and Weaver, G.R., 2017. Teaching ethics in business schools: A conversation on disciplinary differences, academic provincialism, and the case for integrated pedagogy. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16(2), pp.314-336.
Diels, C. and Bos, J.E., 2016. Self-driving carsickness. Applied ergonomics, 53, pp.374-382.
Halinen, A. and Jokela, P., 2016. Exploring ethics in business networks: Propositions for future research. In Extending the Business Network Approach (pp. 333-356). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Jia, J. and Xin, J., 2018, May. Integration of ethics issues into software engineering management education. In Proceedings of ACM Turing Celebration Conference-China (pp. 33-38).
Kohl, C., Knigge, M., Baader, G., Böhm, M. and Krcmar, H., 2018. Anticipating acceptance of emerging technologies using twitter: the case of self-driving cars. Journal of Business Economics, 88(5), pp.617-642.
McNamara, A., Smith, J. and Murphy-Hill, E., 2018, October. Does ACM’s code of ethics change ethical decision making in software development?. In Proceedings of the 2018 26th ACM Joint Meeting on European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (pp. 729-733).
Nielsen, T.A.S. and Haustein, S., 2018. On sceptics and enthusiasts: What are the expectations towards self-driving cars?. Transport policy, 66, pp.49-55.
Pavlo, A., Angulo, G., Arulraj, J., Lin, H., Lin, J., Ma, L., Menon, P., Mowry, T.C., Perron, M., Quah, I. and Santurkar, S., 2017, January. Self-Driving Database Management Systems. In CIDR (Vol. 4, p. 1).
Shalev-Shwartz, S., Shammah, S. and Shashua, A., 2017. On a formal model of safe and scalable self-driving cars. arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.06374.
Spiekermann, S. and Winkler, T., 2020. Value-based Engineering for Ethics by Design. arXiv preprint arXiv:2004.13676.
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