Table of Contents
1.0 Theories of Innovation and emergence of technology.
2.0 How Innovation Ecosystem Support the emergence of IOT:
2.1 How does the business model shaped the technology.
3.0 Usability Issues in shaping success or failure of IOT..
Finding the location.
Finding your lost luggage.
There are numbers of technologies being developed every day in world some become the national part and some got international recognition. And the process of change in technology that is innovation, adaption, transfer and implementation are central to development. It is evident that in the past one of the main roles played in developing the socio-economic sectors is through technology.
The connection of artificially intelligent devices and machines for providing effective communication in machines without any human involvement is referred to as the Internet of Things (Understanding the Internet of Things (IoT), 2014). This infrastructure related to the communication of different devices that started out with the interconnection of computers or laptops to carry out a few tasks has now broadened its reach and is incorporated in all kinds of devices that include smartphones, tablets, watches etc. (Hope, 2016).
The IOT adoption model represent the current state of art and knowledge in field that extend to other industries at risk that need continuity & effective solutions. Innovation is one of the wide concepts as explained by Schumpeter in 1942 and defined as a process of translating the ideas in services & goods for generating revenue and producing value to the customer. As of now, Internet of things based innovation is the actual driver behind changing the entire process of business. As IT provides & offer change in different phases and business process.
It offers opportunities for managing the innovation process which act as enabler of adoption to innovation. The facility of the internet of things, as of now, is used in every sector for the welfare of mankind which includes security, maintaining as well as improvising the energy sector, backpacking, education along with the health sector (Understanding the Internet of Things (IoT), 2014). Over the years the advancements in the fields of technology and virtual communication have also increased the usage of the internet of things which is not only at the consumer level but at the enterprise or industrial level as well. Some of the examples of IoT includes; Amazon Echo (Smart Home), Fitbit One (Wearables), Barcelona (Smart Cities), AT&T (Connected Car), etc. In this report, we have to focus on the effects of emergence of IoT on the backpacking industry.
The term backpacking refers to traveling or in actual terms, hiking from one place to another which mostly never involves any sort of vehicular transport and is mostly carried out at minimal expenses. Transport or conveyance of any kind is mostly not made use of in this type of traveling but since backpacking or hiking involves minimal expenses, public transport is used. Backpacking industry now becomes more advanced due to the use of technological devices since now the hikers or backpackers use various devices during their travels which include laptops, cell phones as well as digital cameras. Through the usage of these devices involvement of technology in the backpacking, industry has been implemented through which the backpacking experience has been made to be quite easier (Markward, 2008).
Given the current IoT state of evolution, and the complex system of IoT & actors involved, applying the ecosystem concept is highly promising due to 2 reasons. First is the IoT nature, prompts towards new conceiving ways of ICT systems & change the business understanding & process of interaction. Second is the multitude of service providers. The concept of IoT include both the horizontal and vertical dimensions therefore one of its key features are the dynamic interaction among the users and providers of horizontal IoT applications & platforms. IoT evolution also introduce new device in the market
The internet of things technology once fully incorporated and established in the industry of backpacking can bring about drastic developmental changes. Hiking involves traveling to different locations, mostly on foot, and this type of traveling to a certain location usually covers a span of a few days at minimal expenses. The hikers or backpackers travel to carry out long-distance trails that take more than one day to cover which is why they tend to load their backpacks with all the essentials that, in their opinion, is required for their journey. The essentials which are loaded into their backpacks include basic hiking requirements like clothing, tents, tarps, cooking gear, sleeping bag, food, water along with a few requisite instruments. The internet of things technology can aid the backpacking industry and in turn the backpackers in this regard, by minimizing the backpack load and providing state of the art technological devices that can perform certain tasks for which otherwise separate objects or appliances would have been required. For example, certain tasks like cooking food, setting out tents or determining the accurate locations or directions can be carried out using a single object with the help of the internet of things technology. This can minimize the weight of the backpacks of the hikers thus making their lives easier and can overall benefit the backpacking industry (Thomas, 2013).
One of the drastic modifications and improvisation can be brought about by the internet of things technology into the backpacking industry is aiding in case of an emergency situation by providing inculcating state of the art online safety gear for the backpackers. These devices also collect the relevant data, carry out the tasks that are required as well as establishing a proper interaction medium with the environment in which they are being used. For example, by introducing safety coats that are made online by installing navigation devices along with a GPS interface and a micro-torch for emergency situations. Through these kinds of IoT technology safety gears, a major improvement can be brought about in the backpacking industry (Carter, 2017).
Backpackers take along their smartphones and digital cameras with them on their hikes, the backpacking industry with the inculcation of the internet of things technology can develop portable chargers for all types of electronic devices and digital cameras that are also connected via the internet so that the hikers remain connected at these mountain spots thus making their lives easier and revolutionizing the backpacking industry (Marie, n.d.).
Over time and a span of years, groups of people comprising of different races and ethnicities traveling and hiking in groups to explore the wilderness has developed into a whole business industry in which a certain individual or a particular party makes money by supplying the hikers with backpacking essentials which include tents, sleeping beds, blankets, small instruments that are needed during hiking along with basic food items (Lee, 2013). This has become a sort of business tourist industry for travelling to different locations, setting up tents and supplying all the relevant instruments and other basic things that are required. Over the years the industry of the backpacking business has expanded due to the accommodation and travelling that is provided on minimum expenses. Along with this expansion in the backpacking industry, this type of travelling which did not include any technological devices and was solely meant for establishing a connection with the wilderness, now includes the incorporation of technological devices as well since now the hikers or backpackers use various devices during their travels which include laptops, cell phones as well as digital cameras. Through the usage of these devices involvement of technology in the backpacking industry has been implemented through which the backpacking experience has been made to be quite easier (Markward, 2008).
The inculcation of safety gears that have been specifically designed using the internet of things infrastructure can provide a major sale as well as acquisition improvement in the backpacking industry (Marie, n.d.). By developing safety gears that are facilitated with state-of-the-art GPS interface, lighting application as well as locating and navigation facilities for emergency situations as well as during hiking as well and directing the manufacture to the fabrication of these type of technological devices can lead to the introduction of positive changes in the manufacture as well as the supply sectors of the backpacking industry. With increasing development and the preference of all the leading industries and businesses towards the fabricating their processes through internet of things, the improvisation of the items developed by the backpacking industry using the infrastructure technology of the internet of things can increase the demand of these technological devices that can improvise their hiking experience which can then in turn benefit the sales of the industry.
Consumers or hikers in this case would opt for the appliances or devices that they themselves can take benefit from and can improvise as well as modify their backpacking experiences. This would lead to an increase in the acquisition of these connected devices by the backpackers which would then lead to the provision of enhancements and potential increases in the manufacturing and supply of this kind of technology. With the incorporation and development of this kind of technology as safety gears for the backpackers, more staff will need to be employed by the industry so that the increased demand for the technological connected devices can be met with easily which will lead to an overall increase in expenses by the backpacking industry regarding recruiting their staff for effective manufacture of the items that are required. (Hope, 2016).
Digital connectivity in the backpacking industry implemented through the internet of things technology can revolutionize and optimize the industry altogether. Considering the technology impact brought about by modernizing safety gears by inculcating them with the internet of things technology on the basis of particular constraints, more focus can be drawn on the possibility or prevention of this kind of impact from occurring. Before understanding the IoT usability issues, it is important to understand its usage and the target market.
IoT makes the life easy of the travelers who might be traveling to another city. These technologies making easy by providing tracking technologies. From the beginning planning for your tour it is now more convenient if you compare with the past when you have to make appointment with the tour and travel agents. But now with the internet of things now you can make all the arrangements just by sitting on a couch. Apart from this, your travel agent can get all the details of your past travel and history easily which help him to booking for the flights, etc. Using these details, agents can make better arrangements for you in terms of cots, hotel arrangement.
Apart from this, one more convenience is that you can easily find the path within the airport, flight status, directions to gate, etc. All these provide you an easy travel. Now you can easily track your destined place.
Moreover, there might be chances that you lost your luggage or forget it at the airport, lounge, restaurant etc. This is a stressful and inconvenient situation for a traveler to find the luggage in an unknown place. But with the IoT, this hassle is somewhat solved as there is a tracking system introduced for the luggage. With this now you can easily track your lost bags and IoT has developed portable and economical trackers and these are a more reliable system. Although at the airports that have their own label systems that can track the luggage which is not much effective and is only available at the premises of the airport only. Their labeling system has some bar code that helps in finding the luggage but what if this piece of paper is torn or lost? And also, it won’t help you once you left the airport. Therefore, IoT has introduced an electronic tracking system that uses a chip which is connected to some cellular network. This is a safer and stress-less choice for a traveler. With this, you can easily track your luggage. One of such devices include; GreenWave track my asset which provide tracking tags implemented with LTE and GPS system. An IT cloud is also connected with this.
As the people who invent the device there are may people who see ways of using it for performing immoral activities. Therefore, laws should be developed in covering any such legal issues.
This kind of technology makes the involvement of a GPS interface for tracking as well as navigation of the user’s location which can prove to be a hindrance of the incorporation of this kind of technology from the viewpoint of the ethical regulations since it undergoes and violates the basic privacy requirements which need to be addressed before the design of such type of connected safety backpack devices is implemented (Moyer, 2018).
On the basis of the regulations and constraints concerning the law, various legal models, regulations as well as policies regarding the identity trust along with liability management do not comply with the technological advancements brought about by the inculcation of the internet of things infrastructure within the backpacking industry. The connectivity brought about by the state-of-the-art connected devices provided for the backpackers includes effective communication and sharing of locations along with other virtual objects. This connectivity can make the internet of things infrastructure highly vulnerable and susceptible to malware and other viruses that can along with potentially harming the technology can lead to hacking into the private data and locations of the user, thus violating the legal frameworks and policies regarding data privacy (Securing the Internet of Things Through Effective Regulation, 2018).
Another legal constraint that prevents the possible occurrence of the technological impact into the backpacking industry is a liability. The fact that these devices connected through the internet and provided to the backpackers without any contractual agreement or guarantee can create legal problems for the industry. Without ensuring that the provided technological devices are free from any faults and the inculcation of this kind of technology in the objects provided by the backpacking industry can create liability problems which can, in turn, hinder the progress of the industry as a whole. There would be no responsibility for the development of any kind of faulty algorithms in the infrastructure which can provide hindrance in the occurrence of the technological impact in the backpacking industry from the legal perspective (Walker, 2014).
If architectural regulations and constraints are considered then by including certain architectural security procedures and by protecting the devices and objects developed over the internet of things infrastructure with the various overlay networks and cloud services then the concerns regarding privacy as well as data and identity theft from various malwares due to the vulnerability of the devices can be effectively controlled and minimized. With the advancement of technology many new architectural safeguards for protection against malwares have been developed and implemented which when used in this kind of technology brought about by the internet of things can effectively comply with the architectural regulations and policies that are requisite in this kind of technology implementation. These architectural safeguards include the encryption of the data and technological information provided by the user as well as the effective maintenance of all the security standards. Through the encryption of all the user data and incorporating all the security standards concerning the internet of things hardware brought about in the architectural infrastructure, the occurrence of this technology impact can be aided (GJ Bleakley).
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