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  • Subject Name : Psychology

Psychological and Social Structures

Introduction and Background of James Pseudonym Case Study

Psychological development of an individual can be assessed based on biological, social, and cognitive development (Burnette et al., 2020). James (Pseudonym) is a 13-year-old boy in my neighbourhood. He is a physically active individual and likes to play badminton and takes music lessons. His favourite hobby is to collect vintage magazines and comic books. This document will explore the biological, social, and cognitive developmental details about James and identify the key personality issues associated with the individual through the application of relevant theories and concepts to summaries the findings. Different developmental theories have been applied in this case study with a focus on the various psychological, social, and biological development of an individual. A reflective analysis of the experience of conducting this assessment will also be included in this document. 

Biological Developmental Stage

James belongs to the biological developmental stage of early adolescence. Biological development of an individual is described as the physiological changes that take place in the transformation of a child into an adult human being (Brent, 2020). The course of and factors associated with the development are critical and are associated with the overall being of an individual. At the current biological developmental stage in James, James 5 feet and 2 inches tall and weighs 50 Kgs. James has dark hair and eyes with a pale skin tone. He has a medical history of childhood asthma. He does not possess any allergies or any other illness. At present, James looks healthy and participates in physical activities. However, he has frequent exacerbations that are of critical concern. This impact his participation in the daily activities in contrast to his peers.

Social Developmental Stage

Social development of an individual refers to the development of social and emotional skills in an individual through the life span (Burnette et al., 2020). This has special importance in childhood and adolescence. Healthy social development of an individual allows the person to develop positive relationships with peers, family, friends, teachers, and other individuals associated in life. These are of prime importance in life forming years and provide support to an individual (Brent, 2020). In the case of James, he has several friends and likes to socialize. The social developmental stage of James can be derived using the psychosocial developmental and the changes associated with changes in the emotional development and associated with acknowledgement of adolescence. James is making new friends in school and neighbourhood and asserts that he likes to enjoy his time while performing group activities. James also asserts that he often feels low on confidence while talking to a large set of people together and is more comfortable in one to one conversation.

Cognitive Developmental Stage

Cognitive development of an individual is defined as the ability of an individual to think, explore, and understand things (Lourenço, 2016). It is also associated with the ability of an individual to develop knowledge and skills with problem solving abilities and dispositions. Cognitive skills of an individual are of prime importance as they focus on the development of the understanding of the world and understanding of the environment (Arnett et al., 2018). During puberty, cognitive development of an individual is focused on the ability to think systematically and develop a logic relationship with the problems related to the environment (Lourenço, 2016). James is able to approach the problems rationally but often gets confused and bewildered. This affects his concentration and completion of the tasks. It has also been observed that when given a responsibility, James is uncomfortable and does not wish to be in a decision-making position.

Personality Issues and Findings

Biological, social, and cognitive development of an individual is impacted by various factors that have been summarized through various developmental theories (Lerner, 2019). During biological growth and development, an individual grows through transformation years in the adolescence where the hormonal changes drive several physical as well as behavioural changes in an individual (Rogiers et al., 2020). These changes. James at the age of 13 is advancing to the age of adulthood through the transition of puberty. At present, his health is okay. However, care is required to mitigate asthma and prevent exacerbations in James. According to the Erickson's theory of psychosocial development, the social development in James is in the stage five, that is, stage of identity versus confusion (Ilias & Esa, 2017). In the growing years of adolescence, the formation of individual identity becomes critical. As James is in this age of growth, he is likely to explore behaviours, roles, and identities. It is crucial for James to feel secure and develop confidence at this stage which is currently lacking to develop a strong identity. This is also important as it will help in limiting the risk of persistent insecurity in James. The cognitive development of an individual is affected by several factors (Ilias & Esa, 2017). This can be understood through the application of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.

The Piaget’s theory of cognitive development asserts how an individual constructs a mental model of the world in the ages of growth and development. According to this theory, the cognitive development of an individual is a regular process that is linked with the biological maturation as well as the interaction with the environment (Lourenço, 2016). In the current scenario, James has transitioned from the concrete operational stage of development that lasts in the ages of 7 to 11 years in an individual. The Formal operational stage of cognitive development is present in the individuals aged from 12 and above, that is from adolescence to adulthood (Rogiers et al., 2020). In the concrete operational stage, only the operational thoughts are dominant. In contrast, the formal operational stage abstract concepts are more dominant in an individual (Arnett et al., 2018). Another theory that can be applied in the growth and development of James is the theory of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. According to this theory, the human learning describes that learning and development of an individual, that is, orientation and intelligence are deeply associated with the society and culture (Ilias & Esa, 2017). James is in a learning age and spends a large amount of time with his peers. The impact of this environment is seen on his behaviour where hesitance is one of the primary problems associated with the social behaviour. The mental well being and actions of an individual are impacted by the environment (Rogiers et al., 2020). As per the theory of Vygotsky, the consciousness of an individual is an end product of socialization (Burnette et al., 2020; Lerner, 2019). Therefore, the factors associated with hesitance and low confidence in James even when he likes to socialize and spend time with peers should be identified and mitigated.

Reflection of James Pseudonym Case Study

As I was given this opportunity to develop a specified case study, I was initially nervous as this was a first experience for me to be documenting and analyzing the psychological and developmental factors associated with an individual. To develop this study, I first took an informed consent of James and his family to retrieve the information and ask the questions. I had developed a rough outline of a questionnaire that I would ask to the individual through open ended conversations. My strategy was to ensure that I am able to participate through active listening and gain crucial insights that would be beneficial for the development of the case study. The only problem that I faced was minor and associated with a linguistic barrier. Being a Chinese, there were some instances where I could not convey the message due to my accent that was difficult for the participant to comprehend. However, I resorted to written communications in these incidents and prevented any sort of ambiguities. Through the development of this case study, I was able to develop knowledge of the application of various theories and thus see their practical application. This was a learning and a holistic experience. The participant was cooperative and was supportive of the facilitation throughout. Completion of this case study took me weeks and through this time, I was able to learn and develop my analytical as well as observational skills with practical perspective rather than just theoretical knowledge. I am certain that this will assist me in advancing as a competent professional in future.

Conclusion on James Pseudonym Case Study

This document provides a brief case study of a 13-year-old boy, James. This study identifies the biological, social, and cognitive developmental stages of the individual and identifies the primary cues associated with this development. Based on these, a succinct analysis based on theories of development has been presented in this document. A reflective analysis based on the experience of completing this case report and acknowledgement of the hindrances that were associated with this assignment have also ben included to present a perspective and an overall view of the completion of this case report.

References for James Pseudonym Case Study

Arnett, J., Chapin, L., & Brownlow, C. (2018). Human development: A cultural approach. Pearson Australia. https://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/35459

Brent, S. B. (2020). Psychological and social structures. Routledge. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=tyX5DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT11&dq=growth+and+developmental+stages+psychology&ots=VI7p_MsiGa&sig=sOirm17GLUzRay5VkG9ZfJU0sOo

Burnette, J. L., Knouse, L. E., Vavra, D. T., O'Boyle, E., & Brooks, M. A. (2020). Growth Mindsets and psychological distress: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 77, 101816. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272735820300040

Ilias, M. R., & Esa, A. (2017). Children's psychology development. Psychology, 6924-46925. http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/9168

Lerner, R. M. (Ed.). (2019). Developmental psychology: Historical and philosophical perspectives. Routledge. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=08XADwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT10&dq=growth+and+developmental+stages+psychology&ots=Uz9cVJ7ynw&sig=tjRvo2biFGJ1yiauJU6RGD5rebc

Lourenço, O. M. (2016). Developmental stages, Piagetian stages in particular: A critical review. New Ideas in Psychology, 40, 123-137. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0732118X15000483

Rogiers, A., Merchie, E., De Smedt, F., De Backer, L., & Van Keer, H. (2020). A lifespan developmental perspective on strategic processing. Handbook of Strategies and Strategic Processing, 47-62. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=a6rMDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA47&dq=growth+and+developmental+stages+in+a+child+psychology&ots=PZeL8I8X7r&sig=hSUSZbReX056qUCVciu5IZBVhl4

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