The aim of conducting this research is to study the sustainability impacts of port digitization and the ports operational risks. Furthermore, it entails studying the concept of sustainable development, technology adoption in port and marine industry. Besides, it studies the smart and eco-friendly port technologies and their impacts on the environment.
This study is being conducted by researching numerous peer-reviewed journal articles conducted by different scholars on the identical aspects. Secondary research methodology is being utilized in this particular study as the research approach.
The notion of sustainable development originated from the 20th century during the period of industrial revolution. It proposes that it is promising to attain economic development and industrialization without damage to the environment. It can be defined as the development that fulfils the desires of the present times without negotiating the capability of the forthcoming generation to fulfil their demands. As far as port sustainability is concerned, it has the ethical accountability towards the earth, to sustain its carrying capacity, while attaining their financial goals. Ports are suffering augmented pressure to lessen negative influences on climate and environment, and their purposes in transport systems and nation make them an important influence in promoting sustainability. There is no doubt to say that technologies must be incorporated into the ports to help it attain zero emissions to have better sustainability. Furthermore, it can be said that the emissions in ports may come from ships, cargo handling equipment, and road vehicles.
This is indeed the era of contemporary digital technologies that entails artificial intelligence; robotics, blockchain, internet of things, machine learning, and so on. These present trends in automation are emphasized on automating both the equipment management and functional processes for ports. The automatic processing of the cargo data across the entire maritime channel ensures efficiency and transparency of the container movement. Smart port can be referred to as an eco-friendly port which can optimize logistics flow mechanically and independently and use energy efficiency using the contemporary technologies like IoT. Furthermore, smart ports are indeed the means to generate eco-friendly port due to decline in emission of pollutants.
Terminals and ports in the contemporary times have to keep innovating them to keep up with ever-increasing vessel sizes and cargo volumes. They are adopting a digital mindset and incorporate smart-port techniques to remain customer-friendly, and productive. The major disruptors in this regards are cloud-based services, connected platforms, and more. Such connected platforms assist ports to reduce waste and energy consumption. It is true that with the increasing demand of terminals and ports as classy intermodal centres for distribution of goods globally, there have been increasing risks facing them on daily basis in the complicated environment.
Port operations can result in impacting the environment including air, land, and water. It is true to say that numerous accidents occur during the cargo management and storage mainly in case of manual handling wherein workers are directly exposed to risks and hazards. Cargo operations generate wastes like rubbish, wood bark from log handling, and so on. Further, handling of cargo is creating noise pollution also that leads to cause unacceptable levels of stress among local people. Since numerous years, there has been increasing traffic of world-oceans and hence the risks of pollution increased due to shipping activity. Moreover, the huge volume of shore-based transportation is linked with undesirable ecological influences on the marine environment. Besides, there has been a great risk associated with the port maintenance activities like dredging as it results in the physical removal of the seabed and related flora and fauna from the site.
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