Is globalisation responsible for the spread of infectious disease caused by foodborne parasites or pathogens?.
Is globalisation a major challenge for degradation of environment?.
Natural resource a curse for globalisation?.
Globalisation is the exchange and spread of people, ideas, resources, goods, animals, and other cultural or physical activity. Although globalisation has eased our production and boosted our economy but it had also brought several negative effects with it. Some of the major global issues are mentioned here. It facilitated the spread of various infectious ailments which have huge negative impact on food safety, food sovereignty and food security due to the spread of foodborne parasites and pathogens (Robertson et al.2014).Environmental degradation is one of the major challenge that is being faced by many countries due to globalisation (Rahman 2020).Natural resources have proven to be a curse for most of the countries due to globalisation (Adams et al.2019).Exhaustion of money resources resulting in financial crisis and also exposing ugly side of humanity (Pop & Valeriu 2015).International migration has resulted in mixed culture and ethnic values in Australia, which in long term may replace its old tradition and culture (Forrest et al.2003). Thus it can be stated that globalisation has negatively affected various nation in some aspects with some positive effects too.
Studies suggest that there are more than 107 species of parasites available in food which can degrade human health (Orlandi et al.2002). Due to globalisation, doctors are confronted with various unknown parasites which are generally from another country. Due to lack of awareness, they find it difficult to recognise the parasite, its related symptoms and result in delays in diagnosis. The source of this parasite are import of goods such as meat, live fish, movement of animals, companion animals like pets, wildlife and fresh produce. Proactive changes are required to reduce the risk of zoonotic ailments, including wildlife parasites (Pavlin et al.2009). The pressure for organically produced vegetables and animal friendly farming have also resulted in the inclusion of parasite in food chain in some countries. In developed country it has become mandatory to examine the food for foodborne diseases as food safety system (Gervelmeyer et al.2008). This examined data are further used to implement, plan and evaluate health related policies. With the increase in global demand for pork, beef, poultry, trade and production has increased but the safety measures and standard testing procedures have been compromised. The CDC recommends presumptive treatment for refugees from Africa and Asia entering USA to counter unknown parasites (Orlandi et al.2002). For tradition parasites such as Trichinella wildlife serves as a major source and various outbreak have been reported after consuming walrus, bear and wild boar (Pavlin et al.2009).
Globally it is one of the major challenges due to the fact that it has various detrimental effects on public health, biodiversity, natural resources (soil, forest and water), air quality, ozone layer and economy. Increasing demand of energy consumption is also a main reason for environmental degradation which is indirectly related to globalisation. With rapid industrialisation and enhanced globalisation, the global output is increasing continuously. Globalisation of trade is directly proportional to globalisation of environmental problems (Shahbaz et al.2017). Many environmentalists believe that globalisation has caused an increase in global demands for various goods and services which further resulted in huge rise of production and economic activities. This lead to degradation of environment through the exploitation of natural resources. Change in labour-capital ratio changes the body of economy i.e. moving economy from agriculture to industrial sector. If an economy is shifted from agriculture to industrial sector, carbon dioxide emission also increases. When climate change exist with other variables it shows dual nature. Different communities, social groups and ecosystem becomes either losers or winners depending on their capacity to adapt (Thorpe & Figge 2018).Global rise of energy demand in 2017 was 2.1% compared to 0.9% rise in 2016 (IEA 2018). The growth rate of global GDP in financial year 2015 were 7.52% in comparison to 7.33% for the financial year 2014 (WDI 2017). GDP is directly related to carbon dioxide emission from the fact that output growth requires energy consumption like coal, oil, gas and electricity which results in emission of CO2 (Rahman 2017).
Abundance of natural resource and globalisation have been discussed as a curse or blessing in oil rich developing nation (ODCs by various researcher, policy maker and analyst (Öge 2016). Natural resources causes more harm than good in a developing country. It is also argued that ODCs falls into Dutch disease because of slow development and socio- economic growth (Larsen 2006). When the output reward obtained from natural resource is less than total input cost, natural resource is seen as curse (Corrigan 2014). Thus natural resource negatively impacted on economy as well as on governance of weak institutional nations resulting in corruption. Few international organisation like EITI dealing with corruption and transparency have been found as questionable on implementing the rules resulting the resource as curse for the society. Abundance of Natural resource in any country attracts other nation through globalisation thereby raising a question on financial crisis after the exhaustion of money resource. Thirty oil exporting countries were studied from 1992 to 2005 in order to find out the extent of corruption and state stability due to oil prices to determine resource as curse (Arezki & Bruckner 2011).Oge (2016,pp 41-50) investigated how EITI could end corruption and improve transparency in ODCs. He founded that transparency was narrowly defined by EITI resulting in its working criteria in questionable situation.
Globalisation also provides with the technology to counter various foodborne disease. Through globalisation it is possible to manufacture various medicines in some other country for its own use without spending its natural resource or manpower for the same. Globalisation is not only limited to transport of goods and services around the planet but it also improves the eating habit, living standard and side by side it teaches various practices of food that should be adopted to avoid foodborne diseases. It makes people aware of various impending danger caused by foodborne parasite. Developing an online resource globally by combining capabilities of other nation provide control of foodborne diseases caused by pathogens and parasites (Robertson et al. 2014).Is globalisation a major challenge for degradation of environment? To some extent it also helps in protecting environment. Globalisation can improve quality of environment in countries having poor environment standard by bringing technologies from various multinational organisation which produces environment friendly product (Dogan & Deger 2016). Also with the help of globalisation industrial sector can be shifted to service sector resulting in decrease of emission of carbon dioxide as service sector is technology intensive sector (Shahbaz et al. 2018).In countries like USA, China, Japan, India and UK it has been found that electricity consumption has positively affected the carbon emission when compared with country like France which has been negatively affected. Globalisation has negatively affected the carbon dioxide emissions in the USA, the UK and China, and positively affected in Brazil (Rahman 2017).Natural resource a curse for globalisation? It is a well-known fact that Natural resource attracts globalisation but it should also be regarded as boon for many under developed and developing nations around the globe. It is due to globalisation that various technologies reaches every corner around the world where the output reward is less than total input cost. It improves the quality of work and standard of living of people in that nation. Studies suggest that though there is corruption which affects the political stability of the nation but at the same time it improves the liberty and civil right of the people. Globalisation results in mixed culture and varied heritage. It makes a nation full of diversity. At the same time it allows the policy maker to frame the policy keeping in mind to allow the migrant worker in that number so that its classic culture and tradition are not affected.
Thus it can be reinstated that globalisation has negatively affected various nations in some aspects with some positive effects too. It is due to this globalisation, various technologies, goods and services could reach around the globe. It helped the under developed nations and developing nation to acquire those benefits which were only enjoyed by developed nations only. It has improved the quality of life around the globe with certain limitations. It has also helped to look into its darker side and made us aware for the impending danger related with it.
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Arezki, R. and Brückner, M., 2011. Oil rents, corruption, and state stability: Evidence from panel data regressions. European Economic Review, 55(7), pp.955-963.
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Larsen, E.R., 2006. Escaping the resource curse and the Dutch disease? When and why Norway caught up with and forged ahead of its neighbors. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 65(3), pp.605-640.
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